Carroll – the history of the oldest sugar beet plant in the country

Industry Industry of Michigan and the 19th century close to one. Baronial forest swept through the state, like a hurricane, as well as in New England and New York, extending last large stand of white pine forests in the world. They wave lay dying city, hundreds of miles of combustible garbage, swamp and erosion, surprised that they sold their heritage for a few bright coins. lumber town throughout the state, one of them, Cora, named for unknown reasons after Egypt Cairo, faced with extinction.

If in the 20th century in the city with a & # 39; it was another chance to find him a place, that it took the industry. Mayors and other leaders of the state in favor of another. In Caro talks about sugar beet sailed from Bay County, where the entrepreneur nicknamed Thomas Krenazh built a sugar factory in Eseksvil, a suburb of Bay City, another city of logging, which seeks economic bridgehead to replace wood. Kranazha results of the experiment were admired, which quickly replaced the gloom that settled in the heart and mind of the leaders relaxed lumber.

Kranazh went to Nebraska, Utah, New Mexico and California, where he became a witness to this process and talked to the technicians and then hired them. He then created the Michigan Sugar Company, and avoiding mistakes many entrepreneurs saw that it has sufficient capital to survive the frustrations that so often accompany new businesses.

Michigan Sugar Company has won not only on good planning, but also on good weather & # 39; I. The first season of harvesting and processing of sugar beet (which is called the "origin" in the language industry, sugar beet) has been in the history of the state, for all the reasons significant success. Farmers have prepared an average of 10.3 tonnes per each 3,103 acres in total 32,047 tons of sugar beet. The sugar content of beets averaged 12.93 percent at a purity of eighty-two per cent, of which the factory acquired 5,685,552 tons of sugar. The sugar content of 12.93 percent means that each acquired a ton of beet sugar contained 258.6 pounds. With this new sugar factory vpakavila 169 pounds, which is equal to the overall recovery of sugar in the sixty-nine percent, and this is an excellent result for the first company.

Chief among the leaders in Caro, business center in Tuscola County, was Charles Montague. The town waited to see what Mr. Montague thinks about conversations with sugar.

Montague was fifty-two years old when Michigan began to open their eyes to the prospects of sugar. He has already achieved success in many areas, including banking, agriculture, lumber, merchandising and production. In addition to the owner and operating hotels of the city, he led the local telephone system and the electric light company.

If the city will be built sugar factory, it will need a great citizen, to take on the human side, whose participation would create a feat enthusiasm – enough to shake the dollars out of hiding places – enough to make farmers favorably consider upgrading beet that could make the townspeople rich. As it turned out, Carroll was one of the few Michigan communities that did not have to make within the community. In Detroit, ninety miles to the south, trying to look for investors and ripe opportunities closer to home in the nearby town of Vasari, the man lived, whose incredible eyes never ceased to look for opportunities.

Richard Gudles lived comfortably in Wasser, a small town named Matthew Vasara, founder Vasarskaga University. For many years he traveled on European roads as a buyer of agricultural products for the British group. He saw his first beet fields in Germany twenty years earlier, saw the flowering plant, which sat near the cities, factories that employ workers, bought supplies and pay taxes to local authorities and, as a rule, caused the rise of sustainable prosperity in which no citizen directly or indirectly denied. a chance to plunge into the treasury, created from beets.

Without hoods looking for a way to duplicate the success of Germany's farmers. Lucky that the Chicago newspaper with a & # 39 appeared advertising placed recently married a young architect Augustus Maryttsenam, who took time out from their honeymoon to promote business in Germany, which can pronounce the name of the majority of Americans only if they are first filled with marble mouth. It was A. Wernicke Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft of Halle, Germany. Hoodless answered the ad and replace Maritzen offered a considerable sum of $ 4,000 (more than 80 thousand dollars in today's dollars), if Hoodless can cause enough interest to build a factory in Kara.

On the one hand, Gudlasa was Charles Montague, a man of wealth, which is very loved and opportunities, and technology, as evidenced by its control over the local telephone and lighting companies, shiny new distinctive features of late 19th-century technology, and on the other – to Vernitsky, experienced builder factory that wants to build a plant in the United States. For help, he turned to the two friends Fred Wheat associated with Montague marriage for many years, and John Wills. Wheat was a lawyer whose wife was Mary Montagu, the sister of Charles Montego.

Then without hoods gathered citizens committee, which became the predecessor of the company Caro Sugar. Committee member Fred Slocum also served as editor in advertising County Tuskale and helped promote this idea in their news headings. Farmers from the surrounding area of ​​Kara, who are aware of the great excitement caused by the experiment in Eseksvil signed Charles Montague and his associates, bankers John potions earned spurs in coal mining. He also served as vice-president of the coal company Sebewaing; organization, which is headed by Spencer O. Fisher, who also participated in the company's Michigan "Michigan Sugar" Eseksvilya and would later become president of Sugar Company West Bay City.

Once Mantag took the ball, he ran to the end zone without considering the competitive quotations for the construction of the factory. Indeed, it is representative of Wernicke Max Schroeder joined the Montego and potions on tour in Detroit in January evening in 1899. The night was cold; deal in the making was very hot. Great fear was that some other city pub & # 39; e Caro impact by diverting investment dollars from Tuscola County. Time was essential.

In one week, the city held its breath when the trio met with the important financiers in Detroit. Daniel Gutleben in his "Sugar tramfery-1954" reported that the organizing committee in Kara telegram, which reported that the capitalists with investments invested in plant and Wernicke awarded the contract for its construction. Pandemony "reigned supreme", the advertiser Tuscola County. Scilly evening train arrived alone in the evening train from Thursday, which still lives in the memory of Carroll, handed over the next generation, and recorded in the chronicles Daniel Gutlebena. This is a story that shows how Charles Montague urged some large urban kalasarav and dealers to invest heavily in the second plant of sugar beets in Michigan.

Nobody doubted Wernicke opportunity to build a factory in the four thousand miles from their base in a foreign country where the language, customs, and economic conditions are significantly different from their home country. The board of directors have been no experience with beet sugar factories, as well as the rule did not provide for the need to attract corporate employees who had such an experience. In the end, Wernicke was an expert on the Sahara issue, which claimed more than 200 projects, including one just completed in Australia. It also did not matter, because Wernicke enthusiastically signed a contract that guarantees that the new factory will cut 500 tonnes of beet every day for at least the next thirty days at the price of three cents per pound of sugar, which is currently being sold in Chicago six. cents per pound retail.

The new plant, even one that is built by someone devoid of the disadvantages of building a factory in a foreign country, can work 500 tons per day during the maiden voyage. Unavoidable construction problems always create delays; fine-tuning will deter every opportunity to cut for weeks and sometimes months. In the mix were the factory team, who are more accustomed to walk behind a plow or knock down trees with axes than boilers, motors, diffusers, vacuum pans and evaporators. A year earlier, the builders Eseksvil factory warranty missed the manufacture of sugar in three and a half cents per pound fifteen cents and paid for it with expensive court settlement, the fact that Wernicke either unknown or rejected by the moment. unjustified confidence. In addition, Wernicke agreed to finance US $ 300,000 US $ 400,000 from the guide for the construction.

To Kara and investors in Detroit it was too good a deal. With time going better. Village Council as a supplement, purchased 100 acres of land in two allotments, one of which belonged to Charles Montague, and presented it to the owner of the factory, one of which was Montague. The company Caro Water sweeten the deal, if offered for free to 500 000 gallons of water every day of spring.

Thus, Kara as a result of energy and ambition Montego Gudles and freedom of the city, which will be left behind, turned out to be the beneficiary of the factory, largely paid for outside investors. Before the original name Caro Sugar Company January 30, 1899 Organizer of the peninsula formed sugar rafinalnuyu company with 30,000 shares with par value of $ 10. By August of that year, the capitalization rose to $ 500 000 and over jumped in February 1902, when increased to 750 000 dollars. The last increase occurred in September 1902, when it reached even one million dollars – 100 000 shares at US $ 10.00 par value.

The money includes industrialists Charles Bevik Detroit, which in a few years has invested in a sugar factory East Tawas, and Henry B. Joy, who in 1905 became president of the company's automotive Packard automobiles. Joy and his family & # 39; and invested in a number of sugar factories of Michigan, including in Alma, Krosvelle and Bay City. His brother in law, and co-founder of Packard Motor Car, Truman Newburgh invested in Carroll, as well as together with Joy was one of the directors of the company. Newberry in 1918 would have fleeting success as a successful participant in the US Senate in Michigan, peramagshy Henry Ford, another tycoon, who sought the same position. (Thank Newberry lasted longer in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, which they called the city of Newberry, thoughtfulness to honor his father at all cutting hardwood, which he could find, and turning them into charcoal.)

David Caddy and Lee Gilbert, owner of the largest wholesale distribution of foodstuffs in Detroit, was controlled between them nearly five thousand shares. Lee Gilbert entered the presidency, and Henry Joy established position of Vice President.

For several years, the Sugar Trust came to the city and everything changed. American company for the processing of sugar in newspapers everywhere called "Sugar Trust", which moved to Michigan and began to quickly absorb the sugar beet plants in 1901 and 1902. Now disappeared, Charles Montagu, energy and drive which collected the details that made the company. John Salley also disappeared, his friend and partner. Richard Gudles, who started it all, never got into the list of shareholders.

By 1903 the list of shareholders depicted some of the major names in the Sugar Trust. Chief among them was Charles B. Warren, counsel for the American Sugar Refining Company, 22001 campaign which topped the 1904 list of shareholders. Ranking second shareholder became Thomas B. Washington from Boston, MA, director of the American Sugar Refining Company, which held 15 667 shares. Four years after the death of Henry O. Havmeyera, who was the founder of Henry O. Havmeyera, he will take over as president of rusks trust. Third went to Lowell Palmer, executive director of the American company's sugar processing, which held 10 126 shares. Together, the three controlled 48% of the company for the processing of sugar in the peninsula. An interesting feature of the list of shareholders was the lack of names of residents of King, except for a few residents of the last day employees of sugar factory.

American sugar refining company, which in the daily press hurt for their monopolistic tendencies and lacking in federal courtrooms for the violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, was vshanovana 13,000 shareholders, who used unchanged dividend of 12% from 1894. Underrated aspect of the sugar of the Fund is that it is demanded by the entities under its jurisdiction, to produce high quality products at a low price and for that purpose to provide expert consultants who moved from factory to factory, giving technical information, training and recruitment kuryravavshy security, and an overview of the & # 39 objects.

But in 1899, in the village of Kara were interested problems are not in high finance and corporate philosophy, and in hundreds of workers in need of boarding, food, clothing and other necessities and luxuries, which caused cash tingle of the whole town. Men, money, equipment, and construction materials to pour into the farm. Instantly arrived forty-eight carriages equipment plus six million bricks and stone thousand cords. Three hundred workers, including masons, who earned fifty cents per hour, compared to fifteen cents per ordinary workers and five cents for electricians students, created a stir, which began when the snow melted snow, and ended on October 23, when the warden George Bartsh , noted expert on the production of sugar, with special recognition for the winning expertise in crystallization vacuum pan operation, announced the factory ready for operation.

Job security of new beet sugar factories from getting out to those who decided to release them, and soon Wernicke attack. Plant as described Gutleben though evaded American preferences for materials, nevertheless, was a thing in the factory design. He had four evaporators wrought iron to wrought iron, which provided a combined heating surface of 8911 square feet, two pan diameter of 9-1 / 2 feet high by 13 feet, comprising a heating surface 753 square feet, and centrifugal settings that were used steam jet. for final washing of sugar. Six 700 cubic feet of vacuum to the vacuum mold, mounted on the floor pan, accelerated cooling – an advanced feature, which improved throughput. Nine vodatrubnyh boilers equipped with mechanical stokers, provided sufficient steam. Concrete floor, luxury, in accordance with factory standards Michigan, plant separated from the mud and clay that lay beneath it.

Two significant differences between the factory of American design and one of the German designs caused some overkill. The first was that the American management style called leaders who are inspired by the invention of the phrase "manage on his feet and out of place" and the German method is called for a Field Marshal, who commanded from afar, sending lieutenants ahead to gather information and give management wisdom and diktat.

In addition, the European management method required secrecy between management and controlled, and in addition, technology allowed their knowledge to themselves, dyalivshysya that knew only sons or those who pay tuition. Departamentalnaya factory perfectly matches the European style of driving. For this reason, Kara factory consisted of several separate buildings or departments, the effect of which made it difficult to communicate and increased the number of workers needed to work in the factory. Messengers wandered between rooms, delivering orders and the information is not always on time, as required by the circumstances. In subsequent years, the agreement will complicate the expansion of the factory; one expansion region usually occurred due to another. Built in Kilby plants built by Joseph Kilby, of Cleveland, Ohio, considered by many the chief designers of sugar factories, and vice versa, provided sufficient space to for two or more generations consistent development allowed a five-fold increase in capacity with only minor additions to the structure or foundations .

Wernicke's record in terms of practicality and fairness was excellent. In the period from 1 March 1899 to 23 October of the same year, the German company has set a good part of the factory from Germany. He then organized the design and construction of a complete operating on the & # 39 object in a relatively new industry in a foreign country just seven months, becoming the first of the eight plants of sugar beet, built in Michigan in 1899, which made it the second-built factory in Michigan after Eseksvilya. Паводле стандартаў, якія існуюць у 1899 годзе і больш за сто гадоў праз, дасягненне Верніке выступае як манументальнае дасягненне. За выключэннем звычайных няўдач, фабрыка дзейнічала таксама, а ў некаторых выпадках і лепш, чым любы стартап, які адбыўся ў тым годзе.

З-за страты запісаў, у прыватнасці, аб утрыманні цукру ў перапрацаванай бураках, вынікі першай кампаніі можна толькі падлічыць. Недалёка ад Бей-Сіці было паведамлена, што ўтрыманне цукру ў трынаццаці працэнтах, а адзінаццаць адсоткаў было зарэгістравана ў іншых месцах дзяржавы. Ужываючы ў сярэднім дванаццаць адсоткаў, то, на ўраджай, атрыманы ў Кара, указваецца, што новая фабрыка аднавіла 66 адсоткаў цукру ў бураках, спрыяльна па параўнанні з 61 працэнтамі, здабытымі ў гавані Бентон, але не хапае Альмы, дзе аднаўленне дасягнула 72 працэнтаў.

Як бы не было абнадзейлівых вынікаў, просты факт быў тым, што Верніке не змог дасягнуць трох умоў, прапісаных у дагаворы, няўдачы, якія пацягнулі б за сабой паспешную хаду да лесапарка. Па-першае, завод не рэзаў 500 тон у дзень на працягу 30 дзён запар, як гарантавалі. Па-другое, кошт перавысіў тры цэнты за фунт, па-трэцяе, завод не быў гатовы прымаць буракі 1 верасня 1899 года, як абяцалі. Акрамя таго, па дадзеных кампаніі, цукар, які ўтварыўся, не сапсаваўся, і вялікая частка яго была страчана ў працэсе. Менавіта тады Верніке пазнаў судовы характар ​​вытворцаў цукру ў Мічыгане.

Магчыма, кампанія адмовілася б у сувязі з выключнымі намаганнямі Верніке, за выключэннем таго, што дырэктары разглядалі аперацыйныя страты, паколькі штат Мічыган вырашыў адмовіцца ад выплаты абяцанай выплаты за цукар, выраблены пасля 1 студзеня 1899 года. Баунт пры ўмове выплаты з дзяржаўнай казны па адным цэнтры за кожны фунт цукру, які вырабляецца ў Мічыгане з цукровых буракоў, але быў прызнаны неканстытуцыйным Генеральным рэвізорам, рашэнне пазней падтрымала Вярхоўны суд штата. Такое рашэнне для інвестараў стала катастрофай, паколькі адзін працэнт прыраўноўваецца да адной трэці аперацыйных выдаткаў. Вярхоўны суд ЗША адмовіўся разглядаць гэтую справу, спарадзіўшы памылковае меркаванне, што гэтае рашэнне падтрымала рашэнне ніжэйшага суда. Неаплачаныя грошы на шчасце склалі 40 466 долараў; вельмі неабходны кампенсацыя прыблізна да 65 000 долараў страт.

Калі прыйшоў час адправіць Верніке ў суд, дырэктары кампаніі абралі сваім юрыдычным адвакатам Чарльза Эванса Х'юса, бліскучага прысяжнага суддзі, прызначанага стаць галоўным суддзёй Вярхоўнага суда. Рыхтуючыся да суда з Верніке, Х'юз спачатку вывучыў нямецкую мову і бураковую цукровую галіну, каб дазволіць яму перагледзець германскіх інжынераў, якія выступаюць у якасці экспертаў. Па словах Джэймса Хоуэла, былога кіраўніка фабрыкі Каро, які быў падрабязным выкладам гісторыі фабрыкі Кэра, Х'юз правёў месяц на заводзе ў Кара, вывучаючы кожны куток, пакуль не стаў экспертам у яго дызайне і функцыянаванні.

Па выніках судовай справы, па словах Гутлебена, канфіскацыя Верніке ў памеры 300 000 долараў ЗША склала семдзесят пяць працэнтаў кошту кантракту, у выніку чаго Верніке цалкам адмовіўся ад будаўніцтва цукровых заводаў у ЗША. Хоуэлл, пішучы за шэсць гадоў да Гутлебена, выказаў крыху змененую інфармацыю. Ён патлумачыў, што Верніке атрымаў грошы ў памеры 150 000 долараў і дараваў 125 000 долараў, якія засталіся па дамове на будаўніцтва.

Неўзабаве будаўнічая кампанія Oxnard з'явілася ў Каро, каб паўплываць на змены фабрыкі, ні адна з якіх не была матэрыяльнай у плане першапачатковага будаўніцтва. Цэнтрабежныя злучэнні з Амерыкі, такія ў Амерыканскай кампаніі інструментальных машын, якія ў прамысловасці часта называюць "Amtool", замянілі нямецкія канструкцыі. Адна сур'ёзная змена не мела нічога агульнага з дэфектамі ў арыгінальным дызайне. Гэта было дадаткам працэсу Штэфана для выдалення цукру з патакі. Галоўнай праблемай эпохі было высокае стаўленне цукру, які пазбег вытворчага працэсу і скончыў яго днямі ў сумесі з патокай, клейкім сіропам, які застаўся ад вытворчага працэсу.

Фінансавыя вынікі другога года былі ўражлівымі. Новыя цэнтрабежныя ўстаноўкі і працэс Штэффэна (яго называюць Домам Штэфана ў прамысловасці) даказалі сваю карысць. Сем мільёнаў фунтаў цукру прайшло праз склад, прадукт трыццаць дзве тысячы тон цукровых буракоў, які ўтрымліваў 14 адсоткаў цукру. Фабрыка здабыла 243 фунта цукру з кожнай тоны цукровых буракоў, што на 35 працэнтаў паляпшалася за першы год. Новы працэс Штэфана не толькі здабываў цукар з прыблізна дваццаці тон патоку, што вырабляецца кожны дзень, але і здабывае цукар з патакі, пакінутай з папярэдняй ураджаю.

Генры Окснард заснаваў дынастыю кіравання ў Кара

Генры Окснард зрабіў больш, чым проста мадэрнізаваў завод, калі прыклаў свае намаганні да праблем, якія ўзнікалі ў Кара; ён заснаваў дынастыю кіравання, якая будзе пастаянна ўплываць не толькі на завод Caro, але і на маладую цукровую прамысловасць буракоў у ЗША. Амаль дзесяць гадоў раней, у 1891 годзе, Генры Окснард набраў з Германіі і Францыі адных з лепшых і самых адукаваных тэхнікаў таго часу, якія пасля прыезду ў Амерыку ўтварылі ядро ​​кадра, якое павінна было навучыць амерыканцаў у вытворчасці цукру з буракоў.

Стварыўшы свой першы ўзровень кіравання, Окснард працягнуў стварэнне аддзела машынабудавання. Што тычыцца агульных абавязкаў па кіраванні будаўніцтвам, ён звярнуўся да А. П. Купера, які працаваў на піянерскім заводзе Эймс, штат Небраска, у якасці памочніка інжынера. Купер аператыўна агледзеў фабрыку Caro і прывёў у дзеянне план, каб паўплываць на змены, адправіўшы на працу дуэт майстроў, якія суправаджалі яго да Кара. Адзін быў Даніэль Гутлебен, які аднойчы падняўся ў шэраг галоўных аператараў фабрыкі, а пазней – храніст гісторыі буракоў.

Пасля таго, як два верхніх узроўнях былі на месцы, Окснард пастанавіў размясціць групу перспектыўных рабочых, якім не хапала належнай падрыхтоўкі, але якія маглі б выканаць з высокай ступенню задавальнення, калі атрымліваць належную апякунскую працу.

Чарльз Сіланд, трыццаць шэсць гадоў, ураджэнец Германіі, заняты ў Окснард для нагляду за зменамі, дэзавуяваў тэндэнцыю землякоў адмаўляць інфармацыю, акрамя фінансавай узнагароды. Ён пераймаў філасофію Генры Окснада абмену інфармацыяй. Кэра, на яго думку, была не толькі фабрыкай, але і універсітэтам. Доўгі спіс фабрычных тэхнікаў і кіраўнікоў пачаў сваю кар'еру ў Кара пад ягонай апекай, а потым перадаў свае агульныя веды іншым, калі яны пераходзілі з завода на завод. Адным з іх быў Уільям Гудлз, сын таго ж Рычарда Гуда, які пачаў пракат мяча для здабычы фабрыкі ў Кара. На працягу некалькіх гадоў ён нясе адказнасць за ўсе фабрычныя работы і неўзабаве пасля гэтага прыняў пасаду старшыні Пенсільванскага цукровага завода ў Філадэльфіі.

У 1906 годзе Sugar Trust аб'яднаў большасць сваіх уладанняў у Мічыгане ў адну кампанію – "Мічыганская цукровая кампанія", адрадзіўшы назву першай кампаніі, якая пабудавала цукровы завод у Мічыгане. Новая цукровая кампанія Мічыгана ўключала ў сябе Alma Sugar Company, цукровую кампанію Bay City-Мічыган, паўфінальную кампанію паўвострава, цукровую кампанію Carrollton, цукровую кампанію Croswell і цукровую кампанію Sebewaing. У той час Траст праз намінаваных акцыянераў меў большасць акцый у цукровай кампаніі Blissfield, пабудаванай годам раней у 1905 годзе, і кампанія East East Tawas Sugar Company, якая, у 1904 годзе, не мела права прадпрымальніцкага прадпрыемства, мела штраф. Пабудаваная ў Кілбі фабрыка Sugar Trust выкарыстала ў Часка, штат Мінесота, дзе яна дзейнічала на працягу наступных шасцідзесяці шасці гадоў. Carrollton Sugar Company таксама ўключала неіснуючую цукровай кампаніі Saginaw, якая мела яшчэ адзін завод, пабудаваны ў Кілбі, гэты прызначаўся для Стэрлінга, штат Каларада, дзе ён займаў пасаду з 1905 па 1985 год. Чарльз Уорэн прыняў пасаду прэзідэнта Мічыганскай цукровай кампаніі, якую займаў да 1925 год.

Да 1920 года Сонца зайшло на Цукровы трэст. Пасля цэлага пакалення супрацьстаяння нападам з боку розных федэральных ведамстваў, у тым ліку Міністэрства юстыцыі ЗША і Міждзяржаўнай камісіі па гандлі, Амерыканская кампанія па перапрацоўцы цукру паступова прадала шматлікія кампаненты прыватным інвестарам, і такім чынам Мічыганская цукровая кампанія вызвалілася ад цукру. Давер. Увесь яго савет дырэктараў складаўся з жыхароў Мічыгана, ні адзін з якіх не меў асацыяцыі з Цукровым трэстам, за выключэннем яго прэзідэнта Чарльза Б. Уорэна, інтарэс якога зараз быў дасягнуты першым паслом Японіі ў 1921-1922 гадах; Потым амбасадар у Мексіцы ў 1924 г. Ён згубіў заяву стаць генеральным пракурорам ЗША ў 1925 г. падчас палітычна абвінавачанага ў сенаце галасавання, пад уплывам агіды да ранейшай асацыяцыі Уорэн з Цукровым трэстам. Яго памкненні да роляў у дзяржаўным сектары адхілілі яго ад пасады прэзідэнта, ролю якога ўмела выконваў Уільям Х. Уолас, які займаў званне, 3-га віцэ-прэзідэнта і генеральнага дырэктара. Першае і другое віцэ-прэзідэнцтвы трапілі ў пару актыўных удзельнікаў спісу акцыянераў, якія не ўдзельнічалі ў паўсядзённай дзейнасці.

Кара перажывае час і перамены

Дзякуючы Джэймсу Хоуэлу, кіраўніку Кара ў 1944 годзе, які падрыхтаваў запісаную гісторыю ў 1948 г., стала вядома, што Кэра пачаў назапашваць буракі на заводскім двары ў 1937 годзе, што стала важным этапам для хлебаробаў, якія пасля дастаўкі буракоў на завод маглі паглядзець. для патрэбаў іншых культур, тады як раней буракі трэба было пастаўляць па меры неабходнасці.

У перыяд 1928-1937 гадоў завод Caro, як і амаль усе заводы цукровых буракоў Мічыгана, пакутаваў ад наступстваў Вялікай дэпрэсіі. Аднак з 1937 года і да гэтага часу Караль паведамляе аб няўхільным паляпшэнні ў плане мадэрнізацыі і пашырэння. Цэнтрабежныя цэнтры для белага цукру і новы цэлюлозны склад былі дададзены ў 1944 г. Цэнтрабежны – гэта прылада, прызначаная для аддзялення крышталяў цукру ад сіропу, фільтруючы сіроп праз экран, які круціцца з дастатковай хуткасцю (звычайна каля 1200 абаротаў у хвіліну), каб стварыць цэнтрабежную сілу, прасоўвае сіроп праз перфарацыю ў спінінг-кошыку. Крышталі цукру застаюцца ў кошыку, у той час як сіроп рэцыркулюе праз працэс, каб аднавіць большую частку цукру. Гэтыя і іншыя змены сталі прычынай пашырэння сярэднясутачнай нормы зрэзу да больш чым 3600 тон кожныя дваццаць чатыры гадзіны ў параўнанні з 500 тон у дзень па першапачатковым дызайне, што робіць яе адносна невялікай фабрыкай у параўнанні з іншымі ў ЗША, якія вар'іруюцца ад удвая большы ў чатыры разы большы.

Калі ў Кэра ёсць сакрэт выжывання больш за 100 гадоў, дык фабрыка Окснард адбудаваная засталася менавіта такой на працягу многіх гадоў і застаецца такой і сёння, адказваючы на ​​праблемы, як яны ўзнікаюць, атрымліваючы падтрымку сваёй суполкі і мяняючыся пры нагодзе і магчымасці аб'яднацца разам прымусіць перамены. Такім чынам, найстарэйшая ў ЗША захаваная бурачная цукровая фабрыка вісіць у хутка развіваецца прамысловасці.


ХАУЕЛ, Джэймс, Гісторыя завода Кэра ў Мічыганскім цукровым прадпрыемстве, неапублікаваны справаздачу па гісторыі завода Кара, 1 мая 1948 г.

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954, с.182 адносна набыцця цукровых заводаў Sugar Trust, стар. 177 адносна арганізацыі цукру Sebewaing і вынікаў працы, надрукаваная кампаніяй Bay Cities Duplicating Company, Сан-Францыска, штат Каліфорнія

MARQUIS, Альберт Нэльсан, рэдактар, "Кніга Детройтэраў", старонкі 465-468, A.N. Marquis & Company, Чыкага, 1908 – адносна біяграфіі Чарльза Б. Уорэна

Гадавыя справаздачы Мічыгана, Мічыганскі архіў, Лансінг, Мічыган:

Кампанія паўвостравай цукровай рафінацыі пададзена ў 1904 г., а ў 1924 г. – Мічыганская цукровая кампанія

MOODY, Джон, Праўда пра трэсты, спасылаючыся на каментарый, што Sugar Trust пачаў купляць цукровыя кампаніі буракоў у Мічыгане ў 1902 годзе і выплаты дывідэндаў паміж 1892 і 1900 гадамі.

ЗЛУЧАНЫЯ ШТАТЫ. У акруговым судзе ЗША па паўднёвым акрузе Нью-Ёрка

ЗША супраць Амерыканскай цукровай рафінады і інш. старонка 1674 г., выстава прашэння № 1494

Аўтарскае права, 2009 г., Томас Махар, Усе правы абаронены

Where the hell Latrobe – California?

Few places uniquely beautiful than the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada. In the heart of the hills in the south-western part of the County of El Dorado is the town of Latrobe, near Shyngl Springs. The gentle slopes, outcrops and sources add a certain flavor that continues to attract residents of nearby cities. Perhaps the Indians or South Nisenana Maida highly disclose the splendor of the valley, where they inhabited this region in ancient times.

Homeland Indians ran to the Bear River and south of the south or middle branch Kosum River. Nisenan tribe consisted of a primary, permanent village surrounded by several secondary villages and seasonal camps. The villages were family dwellings, acorn grenade, mortar base lodge dances and house from 15-500 people. Conventional rustic places were along Clooney, ridges or streams with a southern exposure. Here nizenanskiya ground acorns with & # 39 are their main food, as well as fishing with hands or spears. Salt was obtained from sources and using bonfires and networks they hunted deer, rabbits and other small creatures. Ants, grasshoppers, lizards and frogs also devoured. Berries Manzanita used for producing such cider beverage. Nisenane were destroyed by the epidemic of malaria in 1833, as well as the extraction of gold mined land.

Latrobeu owes its roots platsevile and railway Sacramento Valley, where the station set up for the huge benefit of neighboring Amador County.

The history of the area is further associated with the Gold Rush of the 1850s, agricultural and economic development of the County of El Dorado and commerce between Clarksville and Latrobe. In 1849, a year after the California gold was discovered, thousands of reliable gold digger arrived at the "digging". Many of them came through the area to settle in Latrobe.

The train station was located at the intersection of Latrobe Road and South Shinglevskay road, which was the town of Latrobe with the eastern end Shyngl Springs.

The railway line was completed in 1884. The town was named after the civil engineer, who has taken an important role in building America's first railroad.

J.H. Miller, locale and hotel owner, opened the first store in Latrobe in 1863. The population had grown to 700-800, the number of stores increased to six or seven. Latrobeb ​​supported four hotels, three blacksmith's shop and a factory of wagons and carriages. Latrobe also offered a bakery and several butcher shops.

There were only three doctors along with two pharmacies, who took care of the medical needs of the whole society. The building of a public school, which still stands part of the school the school, – a two-storey building, containing all public meetings.

Organizations Masons and Odd Fellows had their own rooms.

By 1864 the flights were routed to the new town of Latrobe, if a & # 39 came the first train. Since that time and until June 1865, when the line reached Shyngl Springs, it was an important station for the huge work that flowed down Peyservil Road in Virginia. About 23 years later the railroad stretched to Platservilya.

Seven & # 39; and living the path of the railroad saw some immediate benefits. However, the acquisition of the railway right of way has angered many other people, when they placed the plots of land, but were forced to give up part of their land for the railways.

In 1866, the hotel has a bar in Latrobe and Michigan provide train passengers and locals dinner and overnight.

For a long time, Latrobe controlled all Amador County trading activities. The city became a major center for many travelers, providing eight daily stages in connection with the trains. However, since this is not a tea town, and railway construction continued in the east, business suffered. In 1883, the heyday of state stopped, when the population dwindled to about 80 people with a store, a hotel, the telegraph, the two forging shops and only carriage and wagon shop.

In 1981, the county of El Dorado adopted a plan Latrobe area, covering the western side of the ridge to the Lotaun Kosumn river, noting attractions such as the picturesque mountain Sugar garden and Indian Creek.

Today, the company no longer exists, and the town consists mainly of rural residential areas with a few acres, such as division Shadow Hawk and Sun Ridge Meadow. Another division is currently being built next to the school Miller Hill.

It also remains Oddfellows Hall and that was one of the most highly regarded schools in California today – Elementary School Latrobe.

Where to travel this fall?

The fall season, when the summer is almost gone, and winter begin to breed wings. The days get shorter and the nights get longer and interesting summer crowds disappear, and this is the perfect time to plan a vacation or a quick getaway. This is a wonderful time of the year when the beauty of nature as much as possible, and you can enjoy it thoroughly. Take advantage of cheap travel offers autumn and enjoy the beautiful weather & # 39; I and my loved ones. So, while you're planning a casual visit to the nearest place, look the best destinations that can be visited in the autumn season.

Portland, Oregon: Located near the confluence of Uilamet and Columbia rivers, the largest city in the United States makes a wonderful holiday destination in the fall season. Season brings unexpected sunny days and clear night in Portland. Colorful furnishings, hiking golf and a large number of festivals make this the best time to plan a quick getaway with friends and family & # 39; it.

Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama beautiful throughout the year, but especially in the fall. Since the summer given the green brilliant yellow poplars, scarlet dogwoods, orange and golden maple Hickory, Alabama deploys its openwork blanket with color. Hiking and hunting – popular activities that you can do in the season. Pack the bags and take a break from the old procedures to this incredible place.

Chicago, Illinois: Best time to visit Chicago – this fall season. It is located on Lake Michigan, which is a & # 39 is the most famous attraction of this place. When planning a vacation in this wonderful place, do not forget to visit the main attractions such as Millennium Park, Grant Park and Baku fountain, field museum, etc.

Montreal, Canada: Autumn season in Montreal is filled with reviews. The elegance of the season very well tolerated by the trees and the surrounding world in harmony with nature. To experience the true meaning of the season, do not miss events such as walks and excursions that reveal the tone, color and flavors in all their glory.

Munich, Germany: Autumn season in Munich is cool and wet enough. The famous Oktoberfest – this is the main place that will allow you to enjoy some of the highest quality wines and beers of the world. Also, the natural beauty of this place will take away your heart and leave you without question. A visit to Munich in the fall season can make your stay useful.

The autumn season – the best time to travel, because the places are less crowded, and hotels and flights – pretty cheap. It is not necessary to follow the GPS of your mobile phone, follow the voice of your heart and go to any of your favorite destinations this autumn season.

Guide Alamo car rental – What you need to know about booking, payment and cancellation mechanisms

In 1995, Alamo was the first car rental company to offer customers online reservations in real time. In 2005, she became the first in the industry, which has developed a digital recording system. It has expanded its services to the rest of the world and develops partnerships with travel agents, airlines, tour operators and other organizations associated with travel. No matter what you need to go abroad on a business trip or want to spend a week on the beach with his family & # 39; it, you can not go wrong with the car rental in Alamo.

Choose from luxury cars to drive through a big city, the Toyota or the Dodge to drive something & # 39; w, reliable jeep for off-road adventures, etc. In some states, such as Michigan and New York, it's 18 years. However, keep in mind that for drivers aged 18 to 24 years old can apply.

If you can book a car rental at the airport, be sure to enter your airline and flight number on hand to service agent clients can prepare your car, even if the flight is delayed. It will be held twelve o'clock after the scheduled collection time, or until the end of the day. The second driver may be added at an additional cost per day (cost Var & # 39; iruetstsa depending on the location).

Not familiar with the area in which you are traveling? Try to request a GPS-navigation device with the help of our Alamo car rental. TravelTab device is also available, if you want to voice navigation and 4G data service reaches up to 5 devices.

Alamo car rental – one way and Economy

If you are going to go to another area, Alamo offers car rental in the same direction. Since you may be charged a "long-distance" fee, which depends on the location and time of year. Also known as fee for "discarding", it will be disclosed in the reservation process. It is recommended that disposable braniravalasya rent in advance.

Traveling with their furry friends? Pets are allowed in car rental in Alamo, as long as they are contained in a carrier. If they are not kept by the carrier, you may charge a fee for cleaning and details. In a vehicle without a carrier may contain only service animals for the disabled.

There are several ways to save. For example, the discount on the car rental Alamo will apply if you prepay this credit card at least 24 hours. When choosing a car during the online booking with & # 39 will be able to forward the payment. Discount for pre-payment is not always available in every location.

One of the best partners Alamo can be found on the Internet; discounts are available regularly. You can compare prices, vehicles and demand. Also there is the possibility of combining a car rental reservation at the Alamo with the air ticket and hotel room.

Study: Or to measure the modern violin strings?

Double blind tests in 2014 found that the new violin have preferred the sound that shocked many. But it is music to the ear of violinists with smaller budgets.

If beauty is in the eyes of the viewer, and the taste – on gurmanskay language or sounds the sweetest fiddle only in the ear melofila or "music lover"?

Each of them asked about the superlatives: there is a "best" for all? And since the time of Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737), the eponymous lyutsiera Stradivari, it was conventional wisdom that his great violin really were the best. But are they? Two recent double blind tests suggest that you may still be wrong.

First, a little background: craftsmanship, woods, available at the time (the density differences possibly due to the cold conditions outside & # 39; I, when the source tree grew), egg-white varnish, honey and gum Arabic. .. promote quality and exquisite mystery cello, viola and violin, created by Stradivari. In the most recent auction of the individual layers collected more than $ 15 million. According to CMUSE, website music news and entertainment, world-class violin soloists who play the Stradivarius – Anne-Sophie Muter, Itzhak Perlman, Joshua Bell, Salvatore Akarda, Edvin Marton and Anne Akiko Meyers. Renowned cellist Yo Yo Ma plays the cello Stradivarius.

Tests that compare Stradivarius violin and a new high-quality violins, conducted under the guidance of musical acoustics Claudia Fritz (University P & # 39; EPA and Marie Curie in Paris), Violin Joseph Kertsina master Ann Arbor, Michigan, and their colleagues. The first was a six violins, three strings and three high-quality modern violins. It was held in a hotel room in Vincenzi, a suburb of Paris, two violinists, who wore modified welding goggles, so that they did not know, they play old or new tools. Fifty-five students evaluated each instrument, and the result has contributed new violins.

The first study was faced with criticism – too small sample too few students, in a hotel room and not in the concert hall – because the researchers expanded their investigation of the second test in the 300-seat assembly hall in New York, before an audience of 82 students. The result was the same: the new violin beaten suffer. This study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States of Sciences ( "Estimates listeners new and old-Italian violins," Fritz curtains, etc., 2017).

One point that was repeatedly expressed by listeners, was relatively instruments & # 39; projection, sound volume. New Violin won on that score, and ratings for the projection consistent with a rating for the overall sound quality.

Although it may weaken (for some) the perception of Stradivarius, otherwise overwhelming majority of violinists can be seen as a plus. Modern violin at modest prices can not be a compromise for virtuosos.

It also notes that the double-blind trials have debunked the difference between wines at favorable prices and their cousins ​​on the $ 100 per bottle. And the main cook were deceived by the imitation crab, thinking it was the real thing.

German violinist Christian Tetslaf previously played suffer, but dropped out (well technically not throwing in the ditch) for violin, made in 2002 by Stefan-Peter Greyneram. Why? "It's not good for the" big romantic concerts of the 20th century ", – he says.

Considerations for your hotel

If you are planning a trip to Chicago and looking for accommodation, call a friend who lives there, for assistance. If budget is not a & # 39 is a problem for you, you can book a room in any of the hotels Michigan Avenue. However, the best way to ask suggestions or thoughts about best hotels. And then you can ask for the best shops where you can make purchases. Then maybe you can ask a variety of tourist attractions in the windy city. There's just so much to do. In fact in this city many people watch over their love for each other.

For those who are going to tie the knot, always remember that there is always a perfect place for a wedding in Chicago for you. All you need is patience, time, effort, and your instincts to know what better place to hold this special event in your life. Each hotel in Chicago has its pluses and minuses, but keep in mind that the negative things can be avoided if you plan your trip ahead of time.

Your wedding – it's a very special event that symbolizes a & # 39; union of two lives, and if you are planning a wedding in Chicago, make sure that the location is quite ideal for life, to keep as a memento. In Chicago, in fact a lot of hotels, and it would be better if you use the Internet to research every hotel to know that can provide not only the best place for a wedding ceremony, but the hotel, which can serve as an excellent, healthy food for your guests. Here are a few tips for finding wedding venues in Chicago:

Know your budget. How much are you willing to spend on this once in a lifetime event in your life? Knowing how much you want to spend, can help you determine the correct hotel on the wedding day. Chicago has the best 5-star hotels with different prices and the prices, and they all make perfect places the wedding reception.

Decide between an outdoor wedding or a closed door. Be specific about where you want to place your reception – in a large hall or in the garden? You have to take a decision on this very soon, so you can make the right training and solutions.

location. There are hotels that are near a shopping center, office building, or perhaps with a panoramic view. But some of these hotels are quite expensive. If you plan to stay longer, book at least two weeks before the event. Some hotels offer discounts for early-bird customers.

Miracle mineral baths

Even in 73 BC, the hot springs and mineral baths were places for health and rejuvenation. King Herod, the Roman king of the Jews, has created one of the world's first health resorts on the Dead Sea. Queen Cleopatra to build a cosmetic and pharmaceutical factory. During the Roman Empire almost every city had access to mineral baths, which were used for public swimming, playing sports and socializing. From the UK to Germany and Algeria can be found bath home.

The world-famous Baden-Baden in Germany hot springs attracted visitors for centuries. Located along the river CCA, Baden-Baden welcomes the ancient Romans, the English Queen Victoria and modern visitors. It is considered one of the most elegant bathing houses in Europe, Baden-Baden is created around 29 hot springs, which are transferred through the pipes in different baths of the city. Patients still come to seek help from gout, paralysis, skin diseases, and more.

Native Americans recognized the healing power of the mineral baths, believing that they were a special gift from the people of the Great Spirit. All these early day spa visitors have found that the mineral baths are effective for treating a number of diseases, including psoriasis, acne, rheumatism and indigestion. Spanish explorer Hernando De Sato came across the Valley of the vapor in the early 1500s. He was one of the first Europeans who discovered the healing power of what is today known as the Arkansas, Hot Springs.

Desato was just one of many who have come to discover these magical hot springs, of which formed a National Park Hot Springs. The hot springs of "Homeland" has a rich history, and was soon followed by others. Another American classic, sauna Roosevelt in Saratoga Springs, NY, has attracted sophisticated travelers in the 1800s to assist in the soothing mineral waters. Guests who come to the resort Gideon Putnam, believe that water offers preventive benefits, and the use of mineral springs help to reduce stress and enhance the overall functioning of the body.

These waters also spawned playground for the rich and famous. Almost a century ago, the VIP-guests traveling on railway transport to Mount Clemens, Michigan, or to the "Bat-America City", to experience there wonderful mineral water. Mount Clemens water were pumped from 1,400 feet beneath the city, as well as Henry Ford, William Randolph Hearst and Ditsyanka Ruth. It is known that the bath relieve the pain of arthritis, rheumatism and eczema. It was also a Mecca for polio patients. A thriving therapeutic industry has been supported by 11 large baths and dozens of resort hotels in the city.

Hotel West Baden Springs, opened in the Gilded Age, the French Face, Indiana, carried out a fantastic bathing cap, who was considered the "eighth wonder of the world." National Historic Site, West Baden resort's reputation as a health resort with mineral springs attracted visitors from all over the US to rest and take treatment. In 2007, repair facilities including a spa area of ​​27,000 square feet with capsules for the entire body with the famous mineral water that made the West Baden Springs undisputed first-class resort.

Mineral springs also spawned innovative body treatments. For example, in Harbin hot springs in Middletown, California, physician Harold dalyu developed Watsu, which is a combination of Zen shiatsu with water. Warm and attractive natural spring pools located across the property of 2,000 acres. The Manor Hot Spryngz, Virginia, for the first time welcomed Thomas Jefferson, who three times a day bathed in its waters for three weeks restorative measure. Today, visitors are still able to "take the waters", and enjoy a luxurious spa treatment.

Where to stay, eat and drink in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt is the largest German stock exchange, Deutsche Bundesbank, the European Central Bank and some of the largest corporations in Europe. This is one of the few European cities that is bordered by skyscrapers and modern architecture, but also there are some parts that give him a sense of "old world Germany."

When I was planning a business trip to Frankfurt, I really could not find any type of directories, where to stay and what to do, so I thought that I would give certain information on the basis of my experience in Frankfurt.

As for the hotel, I am very "oriented to the point", so I usually stay at a hotel that allows me or earn or use points, but at the same time I love hotels in general, especially luxury hotels, so I also like to check with some other great hotels in the city, where the scores can not be your goal. Below you will find my recommendations for hotels, as well as some recommendations where to eat and drink.

Three key things I look for in a hotel – it's the quality of the hotel itself, the amenities that it offers and its location. As for the location, in Frankfurt there are three things:

1. Shopping on Goteshtrasse (this "5th Avenue Frankfurt", "Goethe Street"),

2. Remerberg (area A.K.A. Römerberg – Frankfurt's most beautiful area, especially in December with a Christmas market), and

3. Sachsenhausen (One of the most historic streets of Frankfurt with buildings, restaurants, bars and nightclubs of the timber)

The hotel for those who want to earn or use "Points":

1. Grand Frankfurt

Konrad-Adenauer-Strass, 7, 60313

Grandin Frankfurt is located in the heart of the city and within walking distance of the historic center, shopping area and the financial district. In my opinion, in Frankfurt am Main hotels is the best place "makes a point." The hotel has 371 rooms, including 18 suites, all of which are brand Westin heavenly bed and heavenly showers and marble bathroom.

As for the restaurants and amenities, Westin Grand Frankfurt provides two Asian restaurants. San san Restaurant offers Chinese cuisine and Sushimoto offers Japanese cuisine and sushi. Breakfast "buffet" is served in the Restaurant Motions, as well as a lobby bar / cafe called Arabella bar & lounge, which provides coffee, cake, cocktails and business lunches.

Emotion Wellness Center offers an indoor swimming pool with views over the rooftops of the Old Frankfurt, Finnish steam room, sauna and spa. Training Westin Workout – a modern device with treadmills, free weights and LifeFitness equipment. Overall, this is a very nice Westin in an excellent location.

points: Grand Frankfurt Westin – is a hotel Category 4 SPG with a free night requiring 10,000 points per night.

2. Marriott Frankfurt

Hamburger oil 2

Frankfurt Marriott Hotel is situated opposite the Frankfurt convention center ( "Messe Frankfurt"), which is perfect for exhibitions, but not the best place for sightseeing tours. However, it offers excellent amenities and services. I stayed in this hotel for about 3 nights and was very impressed with what he had to offer. There was a lovely little café-bar and a cafe, Espressivo Cafe & Bar, which is perfectly made espresso and cappuccino. In addition, their muesli, yogurt and sandwiches were fantastic (think fresh crusty bread with fine prosciutto or salami instead of the previous 3-day Pre-packed sandwich, which you get in most Starbucks, located in the North American Marryotse). There were also Champions sports bar and a French Brasserie, Brasserie ici.

As Marriott Platinum, I am in a large amount in the Marriott, and I would have to rank the concierge lounge and fitness center in this location right at the top of all the Marriott. The living room was quite rich buffet for breakfast and for dinner. Fitness center was very large: treadmills, free weights, cardiovascular equipment, and even a juice bar, which made protein drinks.

points: Marryot Frankfurt hotel category 5 with complimentary intentions requires 25,000 points for Marriott rewards for the night (or 20,000 if you can get it as PointSaver)

3. Hilton Frankfurt

Hochstrasse 4

Hilton Frankfurt is located next to the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, is a modern 12-storey hotel located in a beautiful green park. They offer 342 standard, hospitality and luxurious guest rooms, including 14 suites, all of which are modern, bright and airy feel.

The hotel has 2 restaurants (Gekkos and Pacific Colors) and a cafe / bar / lounge (Vista Bar and Lounge), as well as the executive lounge and a fitness center with steam and sauna.

points: Hotel Hilton Frankfurt – this hotel category 6 "Hilton Honars" with a free night requiring 40,000 points of pride for the night.

4. Intercontinental Frankfurt

Wilhelm-Straße 43 Leshner

InterContinental Frankfurt is located on the River Main, near the city center and within walking distance of many local attractions, including the square Remerberg, Frankfurt Cathedral and St. Paul's Church. One of the best things about the location of this hotel – an opportunity to get out of the hotel, cross the street and walk through a run (or walk) along the path of the main river.

The hotel actually consists of two separate buildings, which are across the street from each other, a total of 770 rooms. There are two restaurants and a bar – an Italian restaurant LEONS, restaurant Signatures Veranda Bar and DAXs Mainhatten, as well as 24-hour health and fitness center. I would not consider it one of the best Intercontinental hotels, but if you tend to dwell on the IHG, it will be your best bet.

points: Free night at the Intercontinental Frankfurt will require 30,000 points Priority Club (interkontynentalny hotel is 30 000 – 40 000 points)

5. Hotel Le Meridien ParkHotel

Wiesenhuettenplatz 28-38

Located next to Frankfurt Central Station ( "Hauptbahnhof") and one of only two Starwood hotels in the city center, it was one of the most unusual projects hotels that I have seen. Half of the hotel – a charming city of the Old World, and the other half (I would guess 70 years) – a modern business hotel. This applied not only to the external architecture, but also 297 rooms. I stayed in one of the rooms with the senior department, which was actually very nice with traditional furniture, very small. Rooms at the modern side of the much larger and more modern, more focused on the business traveler.

In general, I was not too impressed with this hotel – it did not have any of the amenities that I would expect from a Starwood hotel. There was a decent restaurant LeParc, but the bar, Casablanca, was very dark and outdated. The hotel's gym has a good steam, sauna and jogging track, but on the scale it was very easy. I would stay in this hotel as part of the SPG member, when the album "West Grand Frankfurt" or sold, has a significantly higher daily rate, or when I need to be close to the station.

points: Le Meridien ParkHotel – this hotel SPG Category 4 with a free night, which required 10,000 Starpoints per night. (This is the same number of points per night in Vesten Grand Frankfurt, I would recommend Vestynu in any case, but it is necessary if you are using points)

Hotel for those who want a luxury hotel, and not "focused on point":

1. Steigenberger Frankfurter Hof

Am Kaiserplatz, 60311

For the old European grandeur in a prominent place, you can do no better than a five-star Steigenberger Frankfurter Hof. With more than 130-year history of the hotel is the best address in the city, located just a few minutes from the financial district and the best shopping and cultural areas of Frankfurt.

The hotel has 261 rooms and 42 suites, decorated in different styles, and all of them would be classified as a traditional and elegant than some of the more modern hotels in the city.

Note: The hotel is renovating its rooms and will survive this major reconstruction until about December 2012, so keep in mind if you stop at this time.

The Steigenberger Frankfurter Hof has four restaurants, including Restaurant Français, which was awarded a Michelin star. Others – "Oscar", the restaurant "Hofgarten", summer terrace and outdoor Japanese restaurant "IROHA". There is also a bar for cigars and tsygarrum avtarebar serving cocktails and "royal tea". There is also a fitness and wellness center with a gym, sauna, steam room and spa.

Steigenberger Frankfurter Hof with & # 39; is a member of the Visa Luxury Hotel Collection. Visa Signature cardholders get some nice benefits such as room upgrade, free breakfast, etc. … so make sure you are familiar with the ability to book a stay at this hotel via Visa, to get some additional benefits. They also have a guarantee of the best available rate, so by night should be good.

2. Hotel Villa Kennedy (Rocco Forte)

Kenedelli 70, 60596

Hotel Villa Kennedy – is a five-star hotel, located near the south shore of the River Main on Kenedelli that does not look like a city hotel. Located in wide gardens, with neo-Gothic facade, century-old Villa Shpier was ideally suited to the luxury hotel, which is concentrated around a beautiful courtyard with mature trees and a dining room with alfreskami. With regard to the architecture and tranquility, it was my favorite hotel in Frankfurt.

Location is somewhat different from the others profiled here hotels, as it is in the southern part of the Main River in Saksenhavzen and a short walk or riding in a taxi from the other commercial, financial and cultural attractions of Frankfurt.

Villa Kennedy has 163 rooms, of which 28 – suites, which are called "minimalist deluxe" design with neutral and gray shades. The bathrooms are beautifully decorated with marble and mosaics, floor heating, a bath and a separate walk in shower.

The hotel also has Villa Spa with a 15-meter indoor pool, gym, sauna, steam bath and eight treatment rooms offering a wide range of health and beauty treatments.

Hotel Villa Kennedy from the & # 39; is a member of the leading hotels of the world, so in fact it is a function of the set points by the leaders of the club (you can earn a free night at any LHW property after five lived for a year), however, you have to pay either 100 or $ 1,200 to become a member of the club leaders, so I do not attribute it to the same category as other loyalty programs to the hotel.

3. Jumeirah Frankfurt

Thurn-und-Taxis-Platz 2

Hotel Jumeirah Frankfurt is located in the heart of Frankfurt, is located in the financial district, just minutes from the best store of Frankfurt, including the chic boutiques and Goteshtrasse MyZeil, the most visited shopping center of Germany.

"Frankfurt" Jumeirah – a great new addition to the modern skyline of Frankfurt. The hotel has 157 rooms and 61 suites, the hotel is located on 25 floors of a brave new building in Frankfurt. All rooms have modern decor and are considered the largest rooms in Frankfurt.

As for dining and nightlife, there are two restaurants and a bar. Max on One is an inventive German and Australian cuisine, Le Petit Palais with & # 39 is more casual and offers lighter meals and desserts. Hotel Amber – their bar / nightclub and a much more active than most bars, hotels.

4. Apartments

Gutleutstr 85, 60329

Located near the train station of Frankfurt – Roomers. This hotel is designed for those who like a more sharp, fashionable and vibrant boutique hotel, for example, those which are properties associated with W Hotels, Morgans Hotel Group and Thompson Hotels.

Once the office building has been transformed into a chic boutique hotel with 116 rooms, 11 apartments and a very lively restaurant and bar. Meals crowd "hipsters-zhetset" is a hotel to stay if you are driving the night life.

Roomers is a collection of Kiwi Hotel. He belongs to the group of hospitality in Frankfurt, which also owns The Pure, another hotel, which you can check if you like the Roomers.

Where to eat and drink in Frankfurt:

Here are a few recommendations for lunch, dinner and drinks on the basis of my experience in Frankfurt.

1. Club ivory – Taunusanlage 15, 60325

Modern colonial kitchen (that is graceful and elegant Indian cuisine), located in the financial district. They also have a large selection of alcoholic beverages, which is rare in Germany. I was very happy to see my favorite spirit, Bulldog Gin, which I can not get to his home state of Michigan, and must be in any restaurant that wants to provide an excellent martini.

2. Zenzakan – Taunusanlage 15, 60325

Panaziyatskaya kitchen (sister restaurant of the club Ivory) – great atmosphere, creative Asian cuisine, located in the financial district.

3. Adolph Wagner – Shvaytser Strass 71

Typical Frankfurt restaurant Apfelwein, located in Sachsenhausen. Very lively style benches, communal. Great food, but no beer. If you are looking for traditional German food and apple wine, this place.

4. Zum Storch am Dom – Saalgasse 5 60311

One of the oldest restaurants in Frankfurt with excellent German cuisine and excellent service, located close to the area Remerberg.

5. Frankfurter Kleinmarkthalle – Hasengasse 7

If you like to visit the local food markets to feel the local cuisine, this is a place that you would like. This indoor market located near Piazza Remerberg, with more than 60 stalls offering the most popular delicacies in the region – fresh meat, fish, sausage, cheese, wine, etc. … If you are a delicious circle you want to add this to your itinerary.

6. Café Wacker – Kornmark 9

Wacker & # 39; s Kaffee – the most popular coffee shop in Frankfurt, and should be in the list of coffee drinkers. They provide and sell almost all kinds of coffee and cake. From behind the door is almost always going to be a ruler, but do not let it scare you, perhaps this is the most effective coffee house in which I've ever had, with regard to production of espresso, cappuccino and latte. It is also close to Piazza Remerberg

History of Michigan sugar

October 17, 1898 in the suburbs of Michigan Bay City, Eseksvil smiling governor B. Hazen Pingree was on hand to witness the beginning of the first harvest of sugar beet Michigan. By doing this, Pingree announced a period of speculative investments in the production of sugar beet, which marked the establishment of companies that sometimes suddenly rose to spectacular heights, and just as quickly went down to oblivion, keeping the savings of thousands of small investors. Several companies that survived the turbulent early years, however, have produced more than one billion pounds of sugar each year.

Governor Pingree threw its support on "Public Act 48," legislation, which promised lucky money for the beet sugar produced in Michigan. Its passage caused a rush to build beet plants across the state and, according to his supporters, went away to replace the jobs lost approaching death timber industry, which was an economic pillar of the state for fifty years. When Michigan was a country of white pine forests so thick that in 1812, government surveyors recognized it unfit for human habitation. After depletion of the forests of Maine, New York and Pennsylvania Timber harrows turned their attention to the hundreds of millions of pine planks White Michigan. Now that it was over, the political leaders of the state were in need of new sources of economic wealth.

The Governor and the heads of the companies, Thomas Krenazh Benjamin Butel, Nathan Bradley, people whose happiness were recruited in the timber industry, gladly listened to whistles factory that caused the beets from the pits to store to enter the first of the twenty-three factories where workers, entrepreneurs , farmers and politicians set aside natural differences to a & # 39; to combine their talents for the common good. It was an idea that traveled from Europe nearly seven decades earlier.

France has developed a sugar cane as a source of white granulated sugar is less than a hundred years earlier. Napoleon Bonaparte took over control of France, continued the French tradition to threaten England's war. In accordance with its warlike intentions he set embargo on British deliveries and thereby effectively disabled access to the English port from which depended France, at an overload of cane sugar from the West Indies. Sugar stocks gained on English docks, while the inhabitants of France suffered for his absence.

By the embargo on British trade in France in 1806 to meet their needs a constant supply of cane sugar from Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean and Reunion in the Indian Ocean. To meet the unmet needs created by its embargo and counter-embargo England, Napoleon decided to stimulate the production of sugar from sugar beets. Experiments ten years earlier established the viability of the beet root as a replacement for sugar cane. So convincing were the results of that cane industry representatives offered to pay the modern equivalent of 120,000 dollars Achardu Karl Franz, a scientist most responsible for research in return for rejecting the possibilities of extraction of sugar from sugar beets. Rejection of the proposal, not only confirmed his character, but also established a foundation industry.

By 1812 forty plants operated in France. These factories, meager by the standards of the 21st century, was treated almost one hundred thousand tons of sugar beet produced in the seventeen thousand hectares, and from them produced more than three million tons of sugar. From France, the industry has spread to Germany, Russia and other countries. In Germany Achard founded a school that had students from all over Europe. When the students returned to their home countries, they carried with them the technical information that encouraged the creation of many more plants. Eventually Acharda descendants settled in Michigan, where they become involved in the nursery of the sugar industry of the state.

Sugar beet resembles a turnip on steroids. Its weight ranges from three to five kilograms. The thick canopy of deciduous foliage protects it from the sun. Sugar beets with & # 39 is a member of a family of geese and incorporates cousins, red beet, spinach, pig weed, lamb and Russian thistle, and more narrowly refers to the species Beta vulgaris, which includes not only the sugar beet, but and beets, Swiss chard and vurzel. Its roots can stretch to six or eight feet in the soft soil, so that you can survive in a climate of various types, which is found in Arizona and Michigan, where it has a growing season, which lasts from March to October. Period following the growing season, the period during which the sugar is extracted from sugar beet and then processed, the industry called the "company".

Opening of Michigan sugar beet campaign was, for each view, a great success. Farmers have prepared an average of 10.3 tons of beets on each of 1010 hectares in total 32,047 tons of sugar beet. sugar content of beet averaged 12.93 percent at a purity of 82%, of which factory acquired 5,685,552 pounds of sugar, providing 65% -ing extraction.

Farmers have expressed their approval when the company Michigan Sugar Company has paid an average of 4.51 dollars for every ton of beets, which immediately classifies sugar beets as the main harvest. Investors happy lot. Public Act 48 provided to producers of sugar profits, promising to pay the membership, roughly equivalent to one third of the estimated production costs by three percent. manufacturer's obligation to provide a guaranteed fee of $ 4 per tonne of beet, containing not less than 12% sugar and commensurate $ 4 for all beets that contain a greater or lesser percentage of sugar.

When the target price of four dollars, no yield in the history of mankind has not created a potential for the creation of such a high yield with so few hectares. A farmer with a higher average power, posted fifteen hectares of sugar beet, could earn $ 900, and if it were something & # 39; I have provided the bulk of the labor force, the net profit would exceed the care of the family & # 39 needs, and for the year, including food, it was less than 800 dollars. After adding income from crops such as wheat, corn and beans, as well as income from milk, eggs and poultry, the level of family life in the economy rose to the level of a living wage to the subsistence level, than compared with those who held positions of middle management . in the industry. Not only with the & # 39 sugar beet emergence of radically increased the standard of living of those who grow beets, but also established her reputation as a mortgage payer. Farmers who grow beets, was courted by bankers who wanted to find reliable borrowers, which allowed many farmers to quickly move from subsistence farming to a high income and, ultimately, to the status of wealth.

The official recognition of the Ministry of Agriculture of the United States economy in 1898, the importance of the sugar beet industry – combined with the success that took place right at home, with the original outstanding results Eseksvil factory, due to the rapid development. A year earlier, the country boasts only ten plants of sugar beet, four of which were in California, one in Utah, two in Nebraska and three in New York. Construction of seven plants of sugar beet in 1898 for the first time the focus of the excitement, which expands to a full boom until 1900, when the national number was thirty sugar beet plants in eleven states.

Nowhere was hotter than in Michigan, where nine plants followed the successful experiment Eseksvilya. Explosion cyclonic enthusiasm caused a furious fight, when investors, builders, bankers and farmers about the & # 39; combined energy and skills to revive the eight plants in one year! They were in Holland, Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Alma, West Bay City, Caro and the second factory in Eseksvile. The Marine City, investors, inspired by the success in Eseksvile, paid Kilby Manufacturing Company 557000 dollars for the construction of the tenth factory of sugar beet Michigan. Despite the misfortune of building factories and engineers for their operation on the next six years on the outskirts of Michigan towns grew fourteen additional plants, the last of which with a & # 39; appeared in Blissfilde in 1905. In fifteen years, "Sugar Monitor" built twenty States fourth and final beet factory.

In 1898, when the passion was ignited in the hottest moments of enthusiasts shouting prediction of what Michigan quickly reminds one of a sugar beet field, which extends from the southern border to the northern-most tip of the Lower Peninsula. Lawmakers were alarmed by the fear that Public Act 48, designed to initiate the development of a new industry, could unleash a monster that will swallow the state budget. They stood together in silence with relief when Roscoe Dix State Auditor General announced Public Act 48 unconstitutional. The decision taken later by the Supreme Court of Michigan, cooled delighted sugar beet is only slightly because it was strong, and yet there was hope that the US Supreme Court overturned the decision of the Supreme Court of the State. These efforts failed when the US Supreme Court dismissed the appeal on the basis of jurisdiction. The court's decision was nothing more than a fast kick in Michigan, where beet enhanced the excitement bring fresh capital into the city, which would otherwise have suffered from extinction at the light attenuation of lumber.

If the loan was made at the sixty years earlier, the plant "Eseksvil" was the second beet plant in Michigan. Until the 1830s, the new European practice extraction from beet sugar with sugar cane captured the imagination of the individual, but like-minded, small groups of investors in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Michigan. The latter group was called the "White Dove" by the city, which organized the campaign. Experiments Michigan and Massachusetts eventually led to the construction of factories located for white sugar in commercial quantities. These are the first factory, plastered with the relics of French origin, the average of five tons of sugar beet sliced ​​per day, the amount processed in less than sixty seconds in today's plants. It is impossible to reach the goal of commercial production of sugar as it was not possible in one thousand eight hundred forty-one year.

While it is true that a good idea has a lot of parents, Michigan industry recognized one more than any other. It was Professor Robert Keady, the legendary professor of chemistry at Michigan Agricultural College (later Michigan State University) and defender of consumers pioneers who helped the country to stop the practice of wallpaper and volatile gas. He had the idea of ​​service expansion of agriculture. More than fifteen years he devoted to the research development of sugar beet as a result of earning a hard-nosed, "Father of Michigan sugar industry" for the unwavering commitment to the belief that sugar beet will play a vital role in the future of Michigan agriculture.

By 1906, thanks to Robert Keady and dozens of municipal leaders across the state who were willing to take desperate measures to save their dying community, the sugar beet industry in the state turned into three main groups, which will remain largely unchanged for the next 100 years. The first were those factories who have lived the life of at least ten years, one of which was the first factory in Michigan Eseksvile. The rest included four of the eight plants that are included in the world in 1899.

Factory in Rochester, Kalamazoo and Benton Harbor, plus one in Charlevoix were built by industrialists, who firmly believed in his samaabdumanuyu axiom that when it comes to farmers, "build it and they will come." The theory could not grow on sugar beet, when farmers saw little reason to take the lucrative fruit and vegetables on a product that is dependent on the plant for the conversion of agricultural commodities into marketable products. Factories could not grab the beets.

Baron Lerber Churchill led a group of investors to the idea to build a sugar mill of 600 tonnes per day just across the road from the factory "Eseksvil" in the state of Michigan Sugar Company, believing correctly that the 350-ton capacity plant has become an easy target for aggressive competitor. He was right. By 1903, he persuaded Tom Kranazha, president of the company "Michigan Sugar Company," about the & # 39; to unite with his new company. They named the new corporation, Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company, which virtually ceased to exist original company Michigan Sugar Company, and then start the process of closing the smaller plant.

In addition to the group of plants, intended for short-term existence, there were seven, which largely remain independent and live for an average of 41 years. Chief among them was the Dutch factory, which by all standards should have to go through other undersized 350-ton plants, but because of careful management of Charles Maclay, the former head of the school, who had a tenacity bear trap, the factory has gone through 37 years. The factory in the Netherlands was the only factory in the United States, which ceased operations on Sunday, and it was making in his first eleven years with high costs, but in accordance with the religious beliefs of the majority of society.

Bay City in 1899 was still fast woodcutter paradise, enjoying the last harvest timber, not looking up from a convenient substitution. Among the ruins zagnivaemay industry rose three urban beet plant which shows another example of perseverance – a comparison that is manifested in the Netherlands on term life and the will of one person to achieve success.

J. Mendel. Billy, head trained lumber accountant education assembled a group of investors who, as he had no experience in the production of sugar beet. Together they organized a sugar company West Bay City in 1898. Investors have entered into a contract with Bartlett and Howard, Maryland company from metallurgy, which sought to enter into a new hot industry – production of sugar.

Such was the confidence of the Bill, which he defined the qualifications for managing the factory without the help of technicians who have studied the intricacies of beet sugar factory. The result was predictably disastrous. The factory has reached only 126 pounds of sugar per ton of chopped beets, accounting for 48% of production at a time when factories are often reached 65-69%. Even the factory in the Netherlands, where twelve o'clock every Sunday stopped, recorded a higher level of production by 53%.

Those who pushed the rumors about the imminent failure to do so without first considering the indomitable spirit of Mendel Billy. He continued to work at the plant as part of 38 companies from attractive budget and charity plant managers who came to him for help with spare parts, experience and patience.

Five additional factories were a balance of independent, each with a story similar to that of Holland and West Bay City, where perseverance, lessons, hard work and dedicated artisans gave life to the plant, which, in turn, created the economic well-being of citizens and farmers in equal shares. Four of these plants existed in the mountains Clemens Mennomi, St. Louis and Bay City. The new plant in the city of Bay was the fourth erected in the vicinity of the city, which gave him more sugar factories than any city in America. First operated under the name of the German-American Sugar Company, it has evolved into a company Monitor Sugar Company. Fifth it was established in Blissfilde where luxury factory showrooms took center stage only to fall apart after a few years of mediocrity, when his main sponsor and benefactor Henry O. Havmeyer died suddenly of a heart attack.

When 1905 came to an end in Michigan for the production of sugar beet beginning to wander, does not look like a child's vertsitsu at the end of a vigorous rotation. Plants that opened a few years earlier, under the sounds of blowing, marching bands and patriotic speeches on political lamps, stood behind the closed gate, in reproaches blind forces that have made them so. Seven factories have closed, Eseksvil and five were located in Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Sea City, Saginaw and East Tave, mostly because farmers are indifferent to the appeals of the representatives of the factory to grow beets. However, sixteen beet factories with a total daily capacity of pieces of almost eleven thousand tons remained in business.

Despite the catastrophe elsewhere, formed a new company, which will eventually become the only survivor among the state sugar companies. It was August 20, 1906, when the sugar company "Bay City, Michigan" made a deal with Charles Beecher Warren, its main shareholder and a native of Bay City, the establishment of the new company, which borrowed its name, "Michigan Sugar Company" з Мічыгана першапраходцы ў галіне буракоў.

Новы баланс кампаніі Michigan Sugar Company адлюстраваў актывы шасці цукровых заводаў, размешчаных у штаце Мічыган. Кампаніямі былі, у дадатак да цукровай кампаніі "Бей Сіці-Мічыган", цукровай кампаніі "Сагіна-Велі" ў Карролтане, цукровай кампаніі паўвострава ў Каро, цукровай кампаніі "Алма" ў Алме, цукровай кампаніі "Санілак" у Кросуэле і цукровай кампаніі "Себевайнг". ў Sebewaing. Уорэн будзе займаць пасаду прэзідэнта кампаніі да 1925 года, калі ён падаў у адстаўку ў чаканні прыняцця прызначэння прэзідэнтам Кулідж генеральным пракурорам ЗША. Аднак незвычайна капрызны сенат Злучаных Штатаў, паказваючы на ​​адносіны Уорана да цукровай прамысловасці, адхіліў кандыдатуру ў вузкім галасаванні. Віцэ-прэзідэнт Coolidge Чарльз Доўз, які мог павярнуць галасаванне ў карысць Уорэна, крыху задрамаў у гатэлі Willard. Ён прыйшоў у палату Сената занадта позна, каб змяніць вынік. Упершыню з 1868 года Сенат ЗША адмовіўся ад вылучэння кандыдатам у прэзідэнцкі кабінет, спыніўшы як выдатную кар'еру на дзяржаўнай службе Уорэн, так і яго сувязь з цукровай прамысловасцю. Раней ён займаў пасаду пасла ў Японіі (1922-1923) і пасла ў Мексіцы ў 1925 годзе.

Васямнаццаць гадоў пасля свайго заснавання, у 1924 годзе, штат Мічыган Цукар, дадаў да карпаратыўнага рэестра два дадатковыя заводы, калі да кампаніі далучыліся заводы бурачнага цукру ў Овоса і Лансінг. Праз дваццаць чатыры гады, у 1948 годзе, штат Мічыган Цукар набыў фабрыку Маунт-Плезант, разлічваючы набыць зямельныя надзелы, якія прадугледжаны федэральным заканадаўствам 1948 года. Фабрыка была пабудавана кампаніяй Monitor Sugar Company у 1920 годзе, а ў 1933 г. яе перавяла Ізабэла Sugar Company. Члены сям'і Карыэлаў, якія пад кіраўніцтвам Чарльза Карыла займалі кантрольны пакет акцый "Monitor Monitor Sugar Company" да 1982 года, таксама некаторы час займалі кантроль цікавасць да цукровай кампаніі Isabella. Да 1948 г. фабрыка стала закінутай, карыснай толькі для няцотных дэталяў і маркетынгавых выдзяленняў, прызначаных Міністэрствам сельскай гаспадаркі ЗША, што з'яўляецца непрыдатным канцом для кампаніі, якая паспяхова пачала пісаць дэсугарызацыю патакі з дапамогай іённага абмену за пяцьдзесят гадоў да таго, як працэс атрымаў прызнанне айчынная цукровая прамысловасць.

З закрыццём трох заводаў у "Menominee", "Бліссфілдзе" і "Сэнт-Луісе" ў 1954 годзе ў штаце Мічыган засталіся толькі дзве кампаніі – "Мічыганская цукровая кампанія", якая да таго часу кіравала чатырма з дзевяці заводаў, якія яна набыла: Caro, Carrollton, Croswell і Sebewaing, у той час як кампанія Monitor Monitor Sugar кіравала адной у Бей-Сіці. Абедзве кампаніі будуць канкураваць паміж сабой на працягу наступных паўстагоддзя, пакуль Мічыганская цукровая кампанія, тады 2002 г., была вытворцам кааператыву, які належаў 1300 вытворцам цукровых буракоў і набыла "Цукерную кампанію" Monitor "ад цукровай кампаніі Illovo, Дурбан, Паўднёвая Афрыка. 1, 2004 г.

Сёння камбінаваныя фабрыкі, кожны з якіх з'яўляецца прыкладам сучаснай тэхналогіі здабычы, маюць нарыхтоўку буракоў у 22000 тон у дзень (не лічачы Кэралантана, дзе вытворчасць прыпынена ў 2005 годзе) і здольнасць вырабляць больш за мільярд фунтаў цукру кожны год . Цукар прыходзіць на рынак у грануляваным, здробненым, карычневым або вадкім выглядзе, упакаваным у мяшкі вагой ад двух фунтаў да 2000 фунтаў або ў грузавых вагонах. Акрамя таго, кампанія выпускае больш за 150 000 тон патакі і цэлюлознай субпрадукцыі, што ў спалучэнні з цукровымі прадуктамі дае дзяржаве Мічыган значнае прысутнасць у айчыннай харчовай прамысловасці. Дзесьці, напэўна, губернатар Пінгры, які зрабіў столькі, каб стымуляваць эканамічнае дзіва, працягвае ўсміхацца.

football thanks

a fun and game always inevitable part of entertainment for both young and old. People in America celebrate this festival is a charity event, due to the rapid participation in the game football that brings a wave of pure joy and satisfaction in the hearts set of fanatical football fans who went & # 39 this holiday season; yatseli of football mania. Over the years, football It has become synonymous with this joyful holiday Thanksgiving day.

Many interesting traditions penetrates deep into the Thanksgiving Day, for example, a soccer game kamplimentue this festival of merrymaking. Professional football was the last of the modern trends of celebrating the spirit of gratitude. In 1874, eleven years after the proclamation of Lincoln, the first intercultural football the game was played. Two years later, in the north-east it was created Mizhkollegatsyynaya Football Association, which organized the championship game is mainly to entertain people on Thanksgiving day. Annually such strong competitors as Princeton and Yale, will follow one after another, to give the most coveted trophy winner. Players, students and fans will be wearing school colors to presentation sign banners that fly high above the carriages, hotels and business establishments in New York. on Thanksgiving day Church services early twist to accommodate the fans, the game begins with the season festiveness for the social elite of New York. He became so popular that soon the mid 1890s 1500000 athletes from colleges, clubs and high schools participated in 5000 Thanksgiving Football games across the country.

The custom of watching a football game on Thanksgiving Day was formed in the early decades of the twentieth century. While football made his way into the hearts of millions of people, gaining a lot of popularity back in the 1920s and 1930s, and earned himself a much more prestigious position, which he held at the moment, many people began to visit the football stadium to watch the same thing . Notable teams that play in the world-famous Football League In the end, there was a tradition in America to play in national television games on Thanksgiving Day. Apart from the usual competition, organized nationally recognized Football League in America, many high schools and colleges also organize "day Turkey"Football games per day weekend Thanksgiving, often between regional or historic rivals. However, football on Thanksgiving Day, which plays in schools and colleges of America, is now more or less moved into oblivion in most of the country, and he is still alive only in two cities of the franchise. this is internationally recognized Football League of Americanamely, Detroit and Dallas, where football thanks This very way of life.

football thanks Most often associated with the Lion team and tradition, which is popular since 1934 in the city of Detroit. The game was the idea of ​​G.A. Richards, the first team owner with a furious lion, like the quality of players that make up the team. In fact, four generations Detroyterav become a happy part of the American holiday of Thanksgiving Day. Through '71 fans living in Michigan, turned a local event in an annual festive event, giving it the shape of the greatest traditions in the history of American professional team sports. In fact, no other professional team sport it can apply for a role as US holiday as a team with February, the lion as a team player with Thanksgiving day. This team spent the game every Thanksgiving Day since 1934, except for 1939-1944 in connection with the Second World War. Dallas also held football matches every day Thanksgiving 1966.

Thus, we find that it all happened in 1934, when local radio performer GA Richards, acquired Spartan Portsmouth (OH) command and transported to Detroit Motorcity. The lions with & # 39; being a modern, arrived in the city, appeared in the back seat to baseball tiger in the pages of sports. The Richards were practical reasons for scheduling games on Thanksgiving Day, as it was also wise enough to understand that the best way to give publicity team would choose the Thanksgiving Day contest to attract fans Motor City during the first season teams. Violent clashes between lions and undefeated world champion, referring to reliable bears Chicago It turned out to be a classic of the time. The lions They were very good when they are supported by eight victories that led them to join together bears with a record of 10-1. But Chicago was an even better record, occupying a commanding position with 11 straight victories. Then the match has reached an interesting phase where a single victory in the fateful game would guarantee whether it will lions receive a first place tie bears. Two weeks before that fateful game has sold 26,000 tickets for the clash of "Turkey Day" at the stadium of the University of Detroit. Over the last two losses Richards was not worried because he was pleased with the way he played the first year. His faith and confidence in the team were well rewarded when lions He won popularity in America in 1935 Football Championship. The final match was scheduled on Thanksgiving Day, when the Lions defeated Medvedev 14: 2 to win the championship trophy in the west. Radio, with its huge potential of advertising used as bait to capture the audience. Richards with a national broadcasting company has created a network of 94 television stations Lions-Bears disassembly. Since then, the league suspended plans to hold two national television games on Thanksgiving Day, usually represented by well-known football Dallas, one of the most successful and popular franchises in sports and Detroit players, one of the least successful.

2006 will be the 87th season of world-famous American football and it is supposed to be held from September 7 until the New Year, on December 31, ideally, is scheduled for three games. Thanksgiving day. In addition to the traditional annual game between the world-famous American football On this day, domestic players Detroit and Dallas, the principal leaders of the State of Kansas, who spent their days playing in the Football League of America, are experiencing this tradition 2006 razmestsivshy Denver players on Thanksgiving Day. All these games are scheduled to broadcast in prime time.

Friends and family & # 39; I'm all over America generally prefer to huddle around the radio and television to capture a direct broadcast of the match, zhavayuchy special dishes prepared in the memory. Thanksgiving day. Thus, each day Thanksgiving actually revive the old, classical tradition to enjoy a football match as part of the celebration. For decades, football Thanksgiving and found a strong link that led to a high adrenaline.