cleaning snowstorm

About five years ago I was driving from New York to Michigan with my friend when we were suddenly in a battle with maternal nature. How we survived, it was direct evidence of the power of prayer to experience us through the penitential experience. This happened in the middle of winter.

See if you can find in the history of what part HEAR principle was used (there is delight, entertain the possibility of acting on intuition, remember who helped you).

Enjoy!

We were traveling from New York to Michigan and drove seven hundred miles without an accident, when my friend and I decided to stop at a gas station in a small rural town in Canada. It's time for a coffee and a quick trip to the bathroom. Getting out of the car, I looked up to the sky. It was dark and ominous, almost anticipating. The air was uncomfortably damp, and immediately drizzle.

I went to the rest room and ran back to the car. Although the fuel tank was only half-full, I prefer to refill it. Normally I would have waited for me to gauge smoking warning sign. However, I filled it, paid for it by credit card, and hurried back to the highway.

To my delight, it began to snow. But in the blink of an eye it revolved more and more, dramatically reducing visibility. Within minutes, it was night, and I was forced to slow down the car. My stomach that night for the first time was delayed.

The roads quickly turned to ice, and the wind was getting stronger by the minute. It seemed that I was the pilot a small plane through turbulence. We had to quickly find a hotel.

In the end, my friend and I saw that we both felt familiar for accommodation in the hotel before leaving. On a blind storm, it was difficult to consider it, but we decided to take a chance and leave the motorway.

About a mile down the road, we noticed a lone car in front. Thinking that they were from the area, we followed them, but after a few minutes we realized that they also lost. We have nothing to do but to go back.

Rotating machines for the narrow two-lane road was not an easy feat. Wind howled menacingly around us. The possibility of getting wind in the trenches was a real – very real. With the highest concentration I could muster, I took a deep breath and razmahnuv machine back and forth an inch at a time to turn around.

Suddenly the rear wheels spinning as the Var & # 39; yaty.

It was a bad feeling. Despite the danger to plunge even deeper into the snow, I continued to shake the car until the wheels finally stood up, and the car miraculously jumped forward.

Thank God.

We went the other way, my heart was beating wildly. On ghostly white scenery there were no signs of life. My friend convinced me to go back to the highway and possibly find an overpass for temporary shelter until the storm is not a breath.

I looked at the gas meter. Incredibly, it was still full.

Leaning over the steering wheel, and screwing up his eyes, I tried to find through a howling blizzard ramp, but it was almost impossible to see where I'm going.

In the midst of all this, I somehow remembered how I carry in the right pocket a small stone with Vyara, inscription of on the surface. The right hand trembled when I touched the smooth polished rock. Wrapping his hand on the stone, I closed my eyes and muttered: "Dear God, please, give us the highway Please, lead us home now.".

When I opened my eyes, my mouth dropped in amazement. We got to the entrance to the highway! As we got there, I'll never know.

Clutching the steering wheel, I slowly pulled up to the ice ramp, fully relying on the little yellow reflectors that shimmer car headlight glare. Finally, back on the road, we continued treacherous journey ezdivshy with cochlear pace for a long time.

A few hours later we saw from afar a few rays of light that resembled a small bustling town. I sighed with relief.

However, as we approached, we saw that it was not the city — it was a bunch of cars and trucks that remained in the pits (on both sides of the road).

At this moment, the past and current problems have completely disappeared from my mind. I thought I forgive everyone who is in the past, "hurt me". I released all my resentment, anger, and problems with self-interest. My biggest concern was returning home alive that night. Never before have I made so much intellectual prybirennyav for one night!

Nine hours our tired, dull eyes have seen the most beautiful sign that we have ever seen:

BRIDGE In the US, 27 miles.

We were at home.

Who says that God does not know how to give you a good deal for the mental house cleaning?

He even paid for the gas. The prosecution never with & # 39; was on my credit card!

Favorite beer: the Germans, the Yankees and the prohibition in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Germans long enjoyed alcohol. If at the beginning of the seventh century Irish missionary Columbanus first encounter with the Germans, it happened with the ritual sacrifice of beer.

Even after the Germans had become Christians, the majority of religious leaders followed the biblical view of alcohol as belonging to God. Martin Luther admired beer and wine: at times he n & # 39; they are, and he used the melody of popular songs of songs for some of their hymns.

That was the tradition in the missionary pastor Frederick Schmid, who came to Michigan in 1833 to gather the congregation among the German immigrants of the state. But Schmid, who founded the Lutheran Church and Zion and Bethlehem on the & # 39; United Church of Christ, quickly learned that other local ministers are habits much more strictly. Repulsed the general predilection for strong drink and habit to continue n & # 39; yanyya alcoholic beverages, many were in favor of an outright ban drinking.

In June, 1834 to Schmid asked the local minister of presbyter. Or be used Schmid their powers to convince the Germans Ann Arbor to adhere to the principles of the Presbyterian temperature, which prohibits not only alcohol, but even coffee and tea?

Schmid said he did not have to obey their Christian Jarmuth. People with the Holy Spirit in them will not drink too much and not to misuse God's gifts. Jesus said Schmid, drank wine.

The clash of cultures, which began on that day, will last nearly a century. The Germans arrived in Ann Arbor on a background of a large movement of moderate Americans, born in 1920.

Most of the German settlers had seen things like Schmid. Their attitude is enshrined in the Constitution of the Church Betalskay "Town of Freedom", which condemned only n & # 39; yanyya alcoholic beverages. The churchyard is the tombstone with the date "31 February". According to a former pastor Roman Reineke, family farms would be visited by masons when he worked. They brought a strong cider or wine, and the date of the end of the day it did not matter.

In the cities, where the majority were German, so communication has caused little trouble. But the German love of alcohol was much more of a problem in Ann Arbor. In the period from 1868 to 1918, the city recorded 221 directories a place where alcohol is distributed, more than half of which belonged to the German Americans.

Edith Shtybler Kempf (1898-1993) talked about the interior of the XIX century, driven by Charlie Bear. We went to the professor, lawyers and wealthy German farmers. Baer also serving food, and, according to Kempf, it has never been strashnastsi.

Yankee Michygandy seven & # 39; and some came from New England or New York State, possibly ignoring the Germans, who were selling beer to other Germans. But the student population of Ann Arbor was another matter. Most students era M came from seven & # 39; ads Yankees and grew up in the homes of Methodist, Baptist and presviteryyantsav where teetatalizm conducted. Independently in Ann Arbor, some honored their new freedom, including the freedom to drink.

At the beginning of the University of Michigan closely followed by students. They lived on campus, had a 9 pm. curfew, and they had to attend mandatory chapel twice a day to listen to the sermon, who read the teachers of the faculty, which were mainly intended Protestant clergy.

This changed when Philippe Henry Tapani took over as president of the university in 1852 Tappan visited research universities in Prussia, and he began to recruit faculty on the basis of scholarship, not a church affiliation. Tappan also abolished the university hostel because I wanted students to be more independent and to live off campus, as students in Europe.

Tappan himself drank wine during a meal, and it was like drinking beer students. He really spoke out against distilled spirit, but it is unlikely to suit more conservative capacity and regents.

Free from the authority of parents and university students have turned to alcohol hell. In 1856, the student mobs attacked the German drinking place during "the war in the Netherlands." The conflict began when Zhakab Hangsterfer threw two quarrelsome students with their beer halls. They returned the next night with friends, armed with knives and batons. If Hangsterfer refused to provide them with free refreshments, the students broke open casks and barrels and destroyed furniture and glass.

Soon, six students through my hotel window and interior Henry Binder and helped with a drink in German pain. Binder could capture only one of the students and took him hostage. Others received reinforcements from the campus. If Binder demanded $ 10 for the stolen snacks, the students attacked the ram. If the brick walls give way, Binder set his huge dog on students. But students of the dog killed the dog Binder. Students then went to get their muskets, which they used in military exercises, and at this moment Binder wise to let him go into captivity.

Tappan called on the carpet regents stressed permanent university requirements for a daily visit to the chapel and the Sunday church, as well as other evidence of the moral of the student body. He also called for the implementation of a new urban order, which prohibits the sale of alcohol to minors and drunk people. But the following year a former student died after drinking in the lounge Binder and other rooms.

Tappan joined the community who are putting pressure on the City Council to informally agree that no licenses will not be issued for the east of Division Street, creating a "dry line" for the protection of campus. But Tappan lost points with regents when he refused to accept personal concern. Although he raised the university to a national increase of growth ten times, laying the foundations of law, and engineering schools, and much more – the regents were more concerned about his moral shortcomings. They fired him in 1863.

At the site of the Tappan regents appointed minister of the Methodist and professor of Latin Erastus Haven. The church was inaugurated prezbiteryyanskay Gaven. At the ceremony, the Regent puts it, which tells in detail about the "sinful" behavior Tappan.

However, the president of New Haven, unsuccessfully, to curb rowdy students. In 1867, he informed the Association will give libraries that Ann Arbor "disgraced throughout the country" as a "place of debauchery and alcohol Up & # 39; yanennya". By 1871, he had been stung by quarrels, dissensions night and destructive pranks, voters chose Ann Arbor University faculty member of the mayor. Silo Douglas immediately made municipal leader to warn salons that long ignored the resolution on Sunday, the closing will be performed.

Conflict of Ann Arbor on the alcohol in the end has become a common issue. Michigan branch of the Woman's Christian temperature Union issued a flyer in 1881, deciphering urban salons for making men "bruterami". The leaflet lists thirty-seven owners of salons by name, most of whom are Americans in Germany, and argues that "Al-Arba would be better morally, socially, intellectually, and in any other case, if this disgusting long list of people would have every one of they die of smallpox within the next week. "

In 1887, Michigan voted for the proposed amendment to the state constitution that prohibits the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Many German second trip Ann Arbor (today's Old West Land) rejected his ten to one. Sixth Ward, which was dominated by the Yankees and universities, three voted "for". He lost across the country.

The forces of moderation Ann Arbor finally achieved some success in 1902, when unofficial dry area around the university has become a part of the city charter. By 1908, eleven counties of Michigan adopted local ordinances prohibitive, and every year they are joined by more and more districts. In 1916, the voters of Michigan again considered an amendment to a ban in the state constitution. Second Ward still voted "against", almost two, one, but Ann Arbor in general voted for the ban, as well as the state.

The late Ernie Split recalled that the government inspectors, who arrived at the brewery "Michigan Union" on Fourth Street, on the day when the state is dry, 1 mine in 1918. According to split, all drinking, even the inspectors. Then "the rest of the beer was poured down the drain. It was the saddest day of my life."

Horde Michyganderav headed to Ohio to drink, with the result that the State of Michigan Governor ordered government troops to patrol the border. Cars that ignore the roadblocks, were fired, and the governor was forced to & # 39; to reveal the limited military state. A passenger was killed in the neck when the driver was unable to stop on the highway for the paratroopers in Ann Arbor. But as a result of the search of the car there is no alcoholic beverages.

In 1918, with the & # 39 approved the entrance of the eighteenth amendment, which prohibits the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages. It was ratified by the states in early 1919 and entered into force in January 1920.

The ban actually reduce the strong alcohol consumption, particularly among workers in rural and urban towns. But it had the opposite effect among the bona fide angels.

Bootleggers and illegal places to drink largely ignored beer and wine, focusing instead on the more lucrative hard liquor. Cocktails become chic.

It is estimated that each week from Canada through the Detroit River were brought from 400 to 600 cases of whiskey. Much of it was later moved to Chicago, usually passing through the district Vashtenau.

One cold April night in 1927, police in Ann Arbor, William Erwin Kibler mark and stopped the car in the city center. The driver was not registering, so Marty stood on the side of the machine to send it to the police headquarters, and drove back Kibeler for patrol car. Near the headquarters of one of the passengers pulled out a gun and shot five times in the window, undermining Marty to the sidewalk. The machine with the & # 39; riding. Fortunately, the killer insisted that Marty wore a bulletproof vest.

If the police stepped up efforts to enforce, gangsters simply used their huge profits to buy faster cars and more guns. Ordinary citizens were afraid of being caught in the fire. They put the sticker of the American flag on the windshield with a "Do not shoot, I'm not Buttler" inscription.

Due to the frustration of law enforcement officials, they hit the little man in a German restaurant Metzger Ann Arbor. In 1929, Bill Metzger asked the owner to sell hard cider and put on probation for five years. He was fined $ 100 and could not leave the state without the consent of the court. Him, his means of transport, business and the home can be sought at any time without a warrant. To avoid future cases cracklings, he could not sell cider.

During the 1920s, even the Germans began to question the ban. They realized that they had just replaced the hated interior on talkative and blind pig and began to think that the German approach moderate drinking beer and wine can be good.

In the presidential election in 1932, Franklin Roosevelt ran as the candidate of the wet. As one of the first acts of the new with the & # 39 entrance took twenty-first amendment, abolishing the ban. In April of Michigan became the first state to ratify it. By May, the sale and consumption of alcohol were again legal in Ann Arbor.

Michigan brewery Union Union restored as a brewery in Ann Arbor. Kurt Neumann, a longtime resident of the "Cabbage Town" have been known to the Old West Side, she recalled how people from the neighborhood sat, was packed wall directly from the nuts and sat, talking and drinking. Unfortunately, other residents were not so loyal to the "Ann Arbor Old Time", "Cream-stamp" or "City Club" – perhaps because it's all the same beer, only with different labels. Brewery permanently closed in 1949.

In 1960, local voters finally allowed the bar to serve alcoholic beverages. In 1964, they replaced the age-old dry line dry smaller island around the university, and even that was eliminated in 1969. Anne Arbaryty abolished the last vestiges of the crusade against alcohol Yankees.

This article originally with & # 39 appeared in the review of Ann Arbor for September 2009 For more information about the history of Ann Arbor, including photos, berery and more, can be found at: http://www.celticgerman.com

travel along the cool fresh waters of our large lakes

If anyone ever traveled to the Great Lakes, they would tell you that one of the best places to travel would be around any well-populated outskirts of a big city, not because of the palm or coconut, and because of the fresh water and sun light that makes you feel a tropical paradise.

The journey over long distances – some drawbacks – look at the sea and surf. Among those who fall in jellyfish or burned by the summer sun, and not least to pay for the expensive plane ticket. If you're one of the people who are looking for a place to relax, which can be an affordable and relaxing, then search for a place to stay near a large pond will be a great holiday.

Rent a cottage, kandaminiyala or home can be a bit expensive, but if you take into account living expenses in a hotel, and then find a place to eat, you could learn about cooking in your own kitchen, you may be paying dividends. food costs are expensive, if you can buy food and cook it, you could save 30 percent on vacation. Of course, the dinner always with & # 39 is part of the experience, so do not forget to eat on purpose. Finding a place to rent near the shore of the lake – it is also useful, as soon as it gets, especially when you have a porch or a window overlooking the lake. Waking up to this pleasure is worth the price of admission.

Let it be a couple who is looking for a place for romance or something & # 39; I, who wants to find a comfortable and inexpensive place, and then a trip to the Great Lakes may be what you need. Here, the possibility of sailing. The beaches are fantastic, since, if we compare the picture with the warm southern areas of the US with freshwater beaches, there will be little difference.

One of the most beautiful beaches I have ever seen, located in the center of Cedar Point Amusement Park. Of course, the beaches and the water along the Lake Michigan just amazing. On the beaches there is a lot of sand, and when you go beyond the shoreline, you can even find fossils. The coastline is strewn with stones, and some places are so full of stones that you have millions.

If you have found the perfect place to rent, ideal for swimming and a perfect place to watch the sunset, then you have found a place to rest and help to cope with the fast pace of life. Vacation rental – the key to the experience.

All about golf travel and resorts

Golf – a popular sport, but it is also one of the most interesting activities. It is no wonder why the travel and resort courses are now becoming increasingly popular. Golf helps you interact with others socially. This gives you an opportunity to strengthen friendships and meet new people. In fact, golf – a well-known network equipment, which is used by many businessmen.

Golf also increases the impact of nature. Travel and Resorts Golf strange, because they expose you to a tree, sunshine and natural beauty of nature. Golf also has many health benefits. It strengthens your bladder and increases the heart rate. It helps you stay in shape, but also improves your muscle tone and endurance. It also helps to lose weight and improve your quality of sleep.

Thus, if you plan to go to the golf course, that's the best golf resorts that you should try:

1. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. George Andrews (Fife, Scotland)

This golf resort is located in the charming town of St. George Andrews. It was founded in 1754. On this golf course with breathtaking views. He also filled with magical Scottish buildings such as the Old Course Luxury Hotel. Thus, if you have money to burn and you want to feel Korolevtsy, you should visit this resort.

2. Rosewood Tucker's Point (Bermuda)

This amazing golf resort is located on the outskirts of the beautiful and panoramic points Tucker in Bermuda. This resort is secluded with its magnificent view of the hills and the sea. Therefore, if you want a little time, you definitely need to visit this place.

3. The American Club (Wisconsin, USA)

This is probably one of the most popular resorts for golf around the world. It is visited by professional golfers and golf lovers hard. This beautiful resort is located in the color, Wisconsin. Golf Course is located along the shoreline of Lake Michigan line. This resort is filled with gardens and luxurious cabins. It definitely gives you an experience that will last a lifetime.

4. K Club Resort (Kildare, Ireland)

This resort is located only thirty minutes from the center of Ireland. Building for relaxing at the resort was established in 1830 and is very reminiscent of a French chateau. This ideal holiday resort with cards has two golf courses, where guests can admire.

5. The Broadmoor (Colorado Springs, Colorado)

This golf resort is located about 6,200 feet above sea level, against the Rockies. It is mainly known as a tennis area, but at this mountain resort has three golf courses which guests can visit.

6. Golf Resort Bandon Dunes (Bandon, Oregon)

This golf resort was created in 1999 and with the & # 39 is one of the favorite destinations and golfistav experienced golfers. Many golf magazines consider this resort one of the best in the world. This resort NO luxurious rooms offered by most resorts on this list. But his modest and quiet rooms nice and cozy.

Traveling in golf and spas are now becoming a trend. Thus, if you want to pick up the game of golf to a new level, you should book a trip now.

A national survey of car rental policy, types of vehicles and services offered by this company

With Chryslers, Nissans, Hyundai, Ford, convertible and hybrid cars in vain, why so many people opt for national car rental service. No matter what type of car or minibus you will pursue, National offers it. The company occupies a rental locations in big cities, not only the US but also around the world. Top countries include the US, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany and others. You can take a rental car at any airport or city.

It began as a company that manages a number of independent car rental operators, and now she & # 39 is one of the largest corporations in car rental in the world. Part of the success is due to the national company providing excellent services for leisure and business travelers.

The requirement for the minimum age for car hire is 21 years, although there are some exceptions. For example, a civil servant at the age of 18 years may rent a vehicle, but he must submit his official rent office errands. In addition, tenants are aged between 21 and 24 years can rent economy through full-size vehicles. In the states of Michigan and New York any car older than 18 years can rent a car, although the "fee for young rent" charged.

A variety of additional equipment is available for all who need them. If you need child seats, mobile devices, GPS-devices, racks for skis, etc. … inform National of your requirements when booking reservations.

Options for the airport and other charges

The company always remembers that flights and buses are sometimes delayed. Because of this, they will keep your vehicle is twelve o'clock after the scheduled arrival, or until the end of the working day, depending on what happens.

There is a fee for the secondary driver, which currently stands at about $ 12 per day when renting a car in the National average. However, under certain circumstances, for example, in the states that allow the lessee to add a spouse as an "automatic driver" and rent the Emerald Club members, spouses, domestic partners and spouses according to the law have the same address in the driver's license and comply all other conventional lease requirements.

Rent at the National easy. Sometimes it is better to go through the website with discounts on travel, not to book directly from the national website. This method also allows you to save not only on renting a car, but also on the passage. A company with a & # 39 is flexible in their services and will cater to your needs. You can agree to drop the car to another national car rental, than the one from which you pick up the car.

The whole process of obtaining national discounts on car rentals is simple: just use the travel search tools offered by the Internet, which offers a Best Price Guarantee. This is a huge site that offers a variety of budget travel options, no matter where you are planning to travel and that the vehicle you want to rent.

Carroll – the history of the oldest sugar beet plant in the country

Industry Industry of Michigan and the 19th century close to one. Baronial forest swept through the state, like a hurricane, as well as in New England and New York, extending last large stand of white pine forests in the world. They wave lay dying city, hundreds of miles of combustible garbage, swamp and erosion, surprised that they sold their heritage for a few bright coins. lumber town throughout the state, one of them, Cora, named for unknown reasons after Egypt Cairo, faced with extinction.

If in the 20th century in the city with a & # 39; it was another chance to find him a place, that it took the industry. Mayors and other leaders of the state in favor of another. In Caro talks about sugar beet sailed from Bay County, where the entrepreneur nicknamed Thomas Krenazh built a sugar factory in Eseksvil, a suburb of Bay City, another city of logging, which seeks economic bridgehead to replace wood. Kranazha results of the experiment were admired, which quickly replaced the gloom that settled in the heart and mind of the leaders relaxed lumber.

Kranazh went to Nebraska, Utah, New Mexico and California, where he became a witness to this process and talked to the technicians and then hired them. He then created the Michigan Sugar Company, and avoiding mistakes many entrepreneurs saw that it has sufficient capital to survive the frustrations that so often accompany new businesses.

Michigan Sugar Company has won not only on good planning, but also on good weather & # 39; I. The first season of harvesting and processing of sugar beet (which is called the "origin" in the language industry, sugar beet) has been in the history of the state, for all the reasons significant success. Farmers have prepared an average of 10.3 tonnes per each 3,103 acres in total 32,047 tons of sugar beet. The sugar content of beets averaged 12.93 percent at a purity of eighty-two per cent, of which the factory acquired 5,685,552 tons of sugar. The sugar content of 12.93 percent means that each acquired a ton of beet sugar contained 258.6 pounds. With this new sugar factory vpakavila 169 pounds, which is equal to the overall recovery of sugar in the sixty-nine percent, and this is an excellent result for the first company.

Chief among the leaders in Caro, business center in Tuscola County, was Charles Montague. The town waited to see what Mr. Montague thinks about conversations with sugar.

Montague was fifty-two years old when Michigan began to open their eyes to the prospects of sugar. He has already achieved success in many areas, including banking, agriculture, lumber, merchandising and production. In addition to the owner and operating hotels of the city, he led the local telephone system and the electric light company.

If the city will be built sugar factory, it will need a great citizen, to take on the human side, whose participation would create a feat enthusiasm – enough to shake the dollars out of hiding places – enough to make farmers favorably consider upgrading beet that could make the townspeople rich. As it turned out, Carroll was one of the few Michigan communities that did not have to make within the community. In Detroit, ninety miles to the south, trying to look for investors and ripe opportunities closer to home in the nearby town of Vasari, the man lived, whose incredible eyes never ceased to look for opportunities.

Richard Gudles lived comfortably in Wasser, a small town named Matthew Vasara, founder Vasarskaga University. For many years he traveled on European roads as a buyer of agricultural products for the British group. He saw his first beet fields in Germany twenty years earlier, saw the flowering plant, which sat near the cities, factories that employ workers, bought supplies and pay taxes to local authorities and, as a rule, caused the rise of sustainable prosperity in which no citizen directly or indirectly denied. a chance to plunge into the treasury, created from beets.

Without hoods looking for a way to duplicate the success of Germany's farmers. Lucky that the Chicago newspaper with a & # 39 appeared advertising placed recently married a young architect Augustus Maryttsenam, who took time out from their honeymoon to promote business in Germany, which can pronounce the name of the majority of Americans only if they are first filled with marble mouth. It was A. Wernicke Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft of Halle, Germany. Hoodless answered the ad and replace Maritzen offered a considerable sum of $ 4,000 (more than 80 thousand dollars in today's dollars), if Hoodless can cause enough interest to build a factory in Kara.

On the one hand, Gudlasa was Charles Montague, a man of wealth, which is very loved and opportunities, and technology, as evidenced by its control over the local telephone and lighting companies, shiny new distinctive features of late 19th-century technology, and on the other – to Vernitsky, experienced builder factory that wants to build a plant in the United States. For help, he turned to the two friends Fred Wheat associated with Montague marriage for many years, and John Wills. Wheat was a lawyer whose wife was Mary Montagu, the sister of Charles Montego.

Then without hoods gathered citizens committee, which became the predecessor of the company Caro Sugar. Committee member Fred Slocum also served as editor in advertising County Tuskale and helped promote this idea in their news headings. Farmers from the surrounding area of ​​Kara, who are aware of the great excitement caused by the experiment in Eseksvil signed Charles Montague and his associates, bankers John potions earned spurs in coal mining. He also served as vice-president of the coal company Sebewaing; organization, which is headed by Spencer O. Fisher, who also participated in the company's Michigan "Michigan Sugar" Eseksvilya and would later become president of Sugar Company West Bay City.

Once Mantag took the ball, he ran to the end zone without considering the competitive quotations for the construction of the factory. Indeed, it is representative of Wernicke Max Schroeder joined the Montego and potions on tour in Detroit in January evening in 1899. The night was cold; deal in the making was very hot. Great fear was that some other city pub & # 39; e Caro impact by diverting investment dollars from Tuscola County. Time was essential.

In one week, the city held its breath when the trio met with the important financiers in Detroit. Daniel Gutleben in his "Sugar tramfery-1954" reported that the organizing committee in Kara telegram, which reported that the capitalists with investments invested in plant and Wernicke awarded the contract for its construction. Pandemony "reigned supreme", the advertiser Tuscola County. Scilly evening train arrived alone in the evening train from Thursday, which still lives in the memory of Carroll, handed over the next generation, and recorded in the chronicles Daniel Gutlebena. This is a story that shows how Charles Montague urged some large urban kalasarav and dealers to invest heavily in the second plant of sugar beets in Michigan.

Nobody doubted Wernicke opportunity to build a factory in the four thousand miles from their base in a foreign country where the language, customs, and economic conditions are significantly different from their home country. The board of directors have been no experience with beet sugar factories, as well as the rule did not provide for the need to attract corporate employees who had such an experience. In the end, Wernicke was an expert on the Sahara issue, which claimed more than 200 projects, including one just completed in Australia. It also did not matter, because Wernicke enthusiastically signed a contract that guarantees that the new factory will cut 500 tonnes of beet every day for at least the next thirty days at the price of three cents per pound of sugar, which is currently being sold in Chicago six. cents per pound retail.

The new plant, even one that is built by someone devoid of the disadvantages of building a factory in a foreign country, can work 500 tons per day during the maiden voyage. Unavoidable construction problems always create delays; fine-tuning will deter every opportunity to cut for weeks and sometimes months. In the mix were the factory team, who are more accustomed to walk behind a plow or knock down trees with axes than boilers, motors, diffusers, vacuum pans and evaporators. A year earlier, the builders Eseksvil factory warranty missed the manufacture of sugar in three and a half cents per pound fifteen cents and paid for it with expensive court settlement, the fact that Wernicke either unknown or rejected by the moment. unjustified confidence. In addition, Wernicke agreed to finance US $ 300,000 US $ 400,000 from the guide for the construction.

To Kara and investors in Detroit it was too good a deal. With time going better. Village Council as a supplement, purchased 100 acres of land in two allotments, one of which belonged to Charles Montague, and presented it to the owner of the factory, one of which was Montague. The company Caro Water sweeten the deal, if offered for free to 500 000 gallons of water every day of spring.

Thus, Kara as a result of energy and ambition Montego Gudles and freedom of the city, which will be left behind, turned out to be the beneficiary of the factory, largely paid for outside investors. Before the original name Caro Sugar Company January 30, 1899 Organizer of the peninsula formed sugar rafinalnuyu company with 30,000 shares with par value of $ 10. By August of that year, the capitalization rose to $ 500 000 and over jumped in February 1902, when increased to 750 000 dollars. The last increase occurred in September 1902, when it reached even one million dollars – 100 000 shares at US $ 10.00 par value.

The money includes industrialists Charles Bevik Detroit, which in a few years has invested in a sugar factory East Tawas, and Henry B. Joy, who in 1905 became president of the company's automotive Packard automobiles. Joy and his family & # 39; and invested in a number of sugar factories of Michigan, including in Alma, Krosvelle and Bay City. His brother in law, and co-founder of Packard Motor Car, Truman Newburgh invested in Carroll, as well as together with Joy was one of the directors of the company. Newberry in 1918 would have fleeting success as a successful participant in the US Senate in Michigan, peramagshy Henry Ford, another tycoon, who sought the same position. (Thank Newberry lasted longer in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, which they called the city of Newberry, thoughtfulness to honor his father at all cutting hardwood, which he could find, and turning them into charcoal.)

David Caddy and Lee Gilbert, owner of the largest wholesale distribution of foodstuffs in Detroit, was controlled between them nearly five thousand shares. Lee Gilbert entered the presidency, and Henry Joy established position of Vice President.

For several years, the Sugar Trust came to the city and everything changed. American company for the processing of sugar in newspapers everywhere called "Sugar Trust", which moved to Michigan and began to quickly absorb the sugar beet plants in 1901 and 1902. Now disappeared, Charles Montagu, energy and drive which collected the details that made the company. John Salley also disappeared, his friend and partner. Richard Gudles, who started it all, never got into the list of shareholders.

By 1903 the list of shareholders depicted some of the major names in the Sugar Trust. Chief among them was Charles B. Warren, counsel for the American Sugar Refining Company, 22001 campaign which topped the 1904 list of shareholders. Ranking second shareholder became Thomas B. Washington from Boston, MA, director of the American Sugar Refining Company, which held 15 667 shares. Four years after the death of Henry O. Havmeyera, who was the founder of Henry O. Havmeyera, he will take over as president of rusks trust. Third went to Lowell Palmer, executive director of the American company's sugar processing, which held 10 126 shares. Together, the three controlled 48% of the company for the processing of sugar in the peninsula. An interesting feature of the list of shareholders was the lack of names of residents of King, except for a few residents of the last day employees of sugar factory.

American sugar refining company, which in the daily press hurt for their monopolistic tendencies and lacking in federal courtrooms for the violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, was vshanovana 13,000 shareholders, who used unchanged dividend of 12% from 1894. Underrated aspect of the sugar of the Fund is that it is demanded by the entities under its jurisdiction, to produce high quality products at a low price and for that purpose to provide expert consultants who moved from factory to factory, giving technical information, training and recruitment kuryravavshy security, and an overview of the & # 39 objects.

But in 1899, in the village of Kara were interested problems are not in high finance and corporate philosophy, and in hundreds of workers in need of boarding, food, clothing and other necessities and luxuries, which caused cash tingle of the whole town. Men, money, equipment, and construction materials to pour into the farm. Instantly arrived forty-eight carriages equipment plus six million bricks and stone thousand cords. Three hundred workers, including masons, who earned fifty cents per hour, compared to fifteen cents per ordinary workers and five cents for electricians students, created a stir, which began when the snow melted snow, and ended on October 23, when the warden George Bartsh , noted expert on the production of sugar, with special recognition for the winning expertise in crystallization vacuum pan operation, announced the factory ready for operation.

Job security of new beet sugar factories from getting out to those who decided to release them, and soon Wernicke attack. Plant as described Gutleben though evaded American preferences for materials, nevertheless, was a thing in the factory design. He had four evaporators wrought iron to wrought iron, which provided a combined heating surface of 8911 square feet, two pan diameter of 9-1 / 2 feet high by 13 feet, comprising a heating surface 753 square feet, and centrifugal settings that were used steam jet. for final washing of sugar. Six 700 cubic feet of vacuum to the vacuum mold, mounted on the floor pan, accelerated cooling – an advanced feature, which improved throughput. Nine vodatrubnyh boilers equipped with mechanical stokers, provided sufficient steam. Concrete floor, luxury, in accordance with factory standards Michigan, plant separated from the mud and clay that lay beneath it.

Two significant differences between the factory of American design and one of the German designs caused some overkill. The first was that the American management style called leaders who are inspired by the invention of the phrase "manage on his feet and out of place" and the German method is called for a Field Marshal, who commanded from afar, sending lieutenants ahead to gather information and give management wisdom and diktat.

In addition, the European management method required secrecy between management and controlled, and in addition, technology allowed their knowledge to themselves, dyalivshysya that knew only sons or those who pay tuition. Departamentalnaya factory perfectly matches the European style of driving. For this reason, Kara factory consisted of several separate buildings or departments, the effect of which made it difficult to communicate and increased the number of workers needed to work in the factory. Messengers wandered between rooms, delivering orders and the information is not always on time, as required by the circumstances. In subsequent years, the agreement will complicate the expansion of the factory; one expansion region usually occurred due to another. Built in Kilby plants built by Joseph Kilby, of Cleveland, Ohio, considered by many the chief designers of sugar factories, and vice versa, provided sufficient space to for two or more generations consistent development allowed a five-fold increase in capacity with only minor additions to the structure or foundations .

Wernicke's record in terms of practicality and fairness was excellent. In the period from 1 March 1899 to 23 October of the same year, the German company has set a good part of the factory from Germany. He then organized the design and construction of a complete operating on the & # 39 object in a relatively new industry in a foreign country just seven months, becoming the first of the eight plants of sugar beet, built in Michigan in 1899, which made it the second-built factory in Michigan after Eseksvilya. Паводле стандартаў, якія існуюць у 1899 годзе і больш за сто гадоў праз, дасягненне Верніке выступае як манументальнае дасягненне. За выключэннем звычайных няўдач, фабрыка дзейнічала таксама, а ў некаторых выпадках і лепш, чым любы стартап, які адбыўся ў тым годзе.

З-за страты запісаў, у прыватнасці, аб утрыманні цукру ў перапрацаванай бураках, вынікі першай кампаніі можна толькі падлічыць. Недалёка ад Бей-Сіці было паведамлена, што ўтрыманне цукру ў трынаццаці працэнтах, а адзінаццаць адсоткаў было зарэгістравана ў іншых месцах дзяржавы. Ужываючы ў сярэднім дванаццаць адсоткаў, то, на ўраджай, атрыманы ў Кара, указваецца, што новая фабрыка аднавіла 66 адсоткаў цукру ў бураках, спрыяльна па параўнанні з 61 працэнтамі, здабытымі ў гавані Бентон, але не хапае Альмы, дзе аднаўленне дасягнула 72 працэнтаў.

Як бы не было абнадзейлівых вынікаў, просты факт быў тым, што Верніке не змог дасягнуць трох умоў, прапісаных у дагаворы, няўдачы, якія пацягнулі б за сабой паспешную хаду да лесапарка. Па-першае, завод не рэзаў 500 тон у дзень на працягу 30 дзён запар, як гарантавалі. Па-другое, кошт перавысіў тры цэнты за фунт, па-трэцяе, завод не быў гатовы прымаць буракі 1 верасня 1899 года, як абяцалі. Акрамя таго, па дадзеных кампаніі, цукар, які ўтварыўся, не сапсаваўся, і вялікая частка яго была страчана ў працэсе. Менавіта тады Верніке пазнаў судовы характар ​​вытворцаў цукру ў Мічыгане.

Магчыма, кампанія адмовілася б у сувязі з выключнымі намаганнямі Верніке, за выключэннем таго, што дырэктары разглядалі аперацыйныя страты, паколькі штат Мічыган вырашыў адмовіцца ад выплаты абяцанай выплаты за цукар, выраблены пасля 1 студзеня 1899 года. Баунт пры ўмове выплаты з дзяржаўнай казны па адным цэнтры за кожны фунт цукру, які вырабляецца ў Мічыгане з цукровых буракоў, але быў прызнаны неканстытуцыйным Генеральным рэвізорам, рашэнне пазней падтрымала Вярхоўны суд штата. Такое рашэнне для інвестараў стала катастрофай, паколькі адзін працэнт прыраўноўваецца да адной трэці аперацыйных выдаткаў. Вярхоўны суд ЗША адмовіўся разглядаць гэтую справу, спарадзіўшы памылковае меркаванне, што гэтае рашэнне падтрымала рашэнне ніжэйшага суда. Неаплачаныя грошы на шчасце склалі 40 466 долараў; вельмі неабходны кампенсацыя прыблізна да 65 000 долараў страт.

Калі прыйшоў час адправіць Верніке ў суд, дырэктары кампаніі абралі сваім юрыдычным адвакатам Чарльза Эванса Х'юса, бліскучага прысяжнага суддзі, прызначанага стаць галоўным суддзёй Вярхоўнага суда. Рыхтуючыся да суда з Верніке, Х'юз спачатку вывучыў нямецкую мову і бураковую цукровую галіну, каб дазволіць яму перагледзець германскіх інжынераў, якія выступаюць у якасці экспертаў. Па словах Джэймса Хоуэла, былога кіраўніка фабрыкі Каро, які быў падрабязным выкладам гісторыі фабрыкі Кэра, Х'юз правёў месяц на заводзе ў Кара, вывучаючы кожны куток, пакуль не стаў экспертам у яго дызайне і функцыянаванні.

Па выніках судовай справы, па словах Гутлебена, канфіскацыя Верніке ў памеры 300 000 долараў ЗША склала семдзесят пяць працэнтаў кошту кантракту, у выніку чаго Верніке цалкам адмовіўся ад будаўніцтва цукровых заводаў у ЗША. Хоуэлл, пішучы за шэсць гадоў да Гутлебена, выказаў крыху змененую інфармацыю. Ён патлумачыў, што Верніке атрымаў грошы ў памеры 150 000 долараў і дараваў 125 000 долараў, якія засталіся па дамове на будаўніцтва.

Неўзабаве будаўнічая кампанія Oxnard з'явілася ў Каро, каб паўплываць на змены фабрыкі, ні адна з якіх не была матэрыяльнай у плане першапачатковага будаўніцтва. Цэнтрабежныя злучэнні з Амерыкі, такія ў Амерыканскай кампаніі інструментальных машын, якія ў прамысловасці часта называюць "Amtool", замянілі нямецкія канструкцыі. Адна сур'ёзная змена не мела нічога агульнага з дэфектамі ў арыгінальным дызайне. Гэта было дадаткам працэсу Штэфана для выдалення цукру з патакі. Галоўнай праблемай эпохі было высокае стаўленне цукру, які пазбег вытворчага працэсу і скончыў яго днямі ў сумесі з патокай, клейкім сіропам, які застаўся ад вытворчага працэсу.

Фінансавыя вынікі другога года былі ўражлівымі. Новыя цэнтрабежныя ўстаноўкі і працэс Штэффэна (яго называюць Домам Штэфана ў прамысловасці) даказалі сваю карысць. Сем мільёнаў фунтаў цукру прайшло праз склад, прадукт трыццаць дзве тысячы тон цукровых буракоў, які ўтрымліваў 14 адсоткаў цукру. Фабрыка здабыла 243 фунта цукру з кожнай тоны цукровых буракоў, што на 35 працэнтаў паляпшалася за першы год. Новы працэс Штэфана не толькі здабываў цукар з прыблізна дваццаці тон патоку, што вырабляецца кожны дзень, але і здабывае цукар з патакі, пакінутай з папярэдняй ураджаю.

Генры Окснард заснаваў дынастыю кіравання ў Кара

Генры Окснард зрабіў больш, чым проста мадэрнізаваў завод, калі прыклаў свае намаганні да праблем, якія ўзнікалі ў Кара; ён заснаваў дынастыю кіравання, якая будзе пастаянна ўплываць не толькі на завод Caro, але і на маладую цукровую прамысловасць буракоў у ЗША. Амаль дзесяць гадоў раней, у 1891 годзе, Генры Окснард набраў з Германіі і Францыі адных з лепшых і самых адукаваных тэхнікаў таго часу, якія пасля прыезду ў Амерыку ўтварылі ядро ​​кадра, якое павінна было навучыць амерыканцаў у вытворчасці цукру з буракоў.

Стварыўшы свой першы ўзровень кіравання, Окснард працягнуў стварэнне аддзела машынабудавання. Што тычыцца агульных абавязкаў па кіраванні будаўніцтвам, ён звярнуўся да А. П. Купера, які працаваў на піянерскім заводзе Эймс, штат Небраска, у якасці памочніка інжынера. Купер аператыўна агледзеў фабрыку Caro і прывёў у дзеянне план, каб паўплываць на змены, адправіўшы на працу дуэт майстроў, якія суправаджалі яго да Кара. Адзін быў Даніэль Гутлебен, які аднойчы падняўся ў шэраг галоўных аператараў фабрыкі, а пазней – храніст гісторыі буракоў.

Пасля таго, як два верхніх узроўнях былі на месцы, Окснард пастанавіў размясціць групу перспектыўных рабочых, якім не хапала належнай падрыхтоўкі, але якія маглі б выканаць з высокай ступенню задавальнення, калі атрымліваць належную апякунскую працу.

Чарльз Сіланд, трыццаць шэсць гадоў, ураджэнец Германіі, заняты ў Окснард для нагляду за зменамі, дэзавуяваў тэндэнцыю землякоў адмаўляць інфармацыю, акрамя фінансавай узнагароды. Ён пераймаў філасофію Генры Окснада абмену інфармацыяй. Кэра, на яго думку, была не толькі фабрыкай, але і універсітэтам. Доўгі спіс фабрычных тэхнікаў і кіраўнікоў пачаў сваю кар'еру ў Кара пад ягонай апекай, а потым перадаў свае агульныя веды іншым, калі яны пераходзілі з завода на завод. Адным з іх быў Уільям Гудлз, сын таго ж Рычарда Гуда, які пачаў пракат мяча для здабычы фабрыкі ў Кара. На працягу некалькіх гадоў ён нясе адказнасць за ўсе фабрычныя работы і неўзабаве пасля гэтага прыняў пасаду старшыні Пенсільванскага цукровага завода ў Філадэльфіі.

У 1906 годзе Sugar Trust аб'яднаў большасць сваіх уладанняў у Мічыгане ў адну кампанію – "Мічыганская цукровая кампанія", адрадзіўшы назву першай кампаніі, якая пабудавала цукровы завод у Мічыгане. Новая цукровая кампанія Мічыгана ўключала ў сябе Alma Sugar Company, цукровую кампанію Bay City-Мічыган, паўфінальную кампанію паўвострава, цукровую кампанію Carrollton, цукровую кампанію Croswell і цукровую кампанію Sebewaing. У той час Траст праз намінаваных акцыянераў меў большасць акцый у цукровай кампаніі Blissfield, пабудаванай годам раней у 1905 годзе, і кампанія East East Tawas Sugar Company, якая, у 1904 годзе, не мела права прадпрымальніцкага прадпрыемства, мела штраф. Пабудаваная ў Кілбі фабрыка Sugar Trust выкарыстала ў Часка, штат Мінесота, дзе яна дзейнічала на працягу наступных шасцідзесяці шасці гадоў. Carrollton Sugar Company таксама ўключала неіснуючую цукровай кампаніі Saginaw, якая мела яшчэ адзін завод, пабудаваны ў Кілбі, гэты прызначаўся для Стэрлінга, штат Каларада, дзе ён займаў пасаду з 1905 па 1985 год. Чарльз Уорэн прыняў пасаду прэзідэнта Мічыганскай цукровай кампаніі, якую займаў да 1925 год.

Да 1920 года Сонца зайшло на Цукровы трэст. Пасля цэлага пакалення супрацьстаяння нападам з боку розных федэральных ведамстваў, у тым ліку Міністэрства юстыцыі ЗША і Міждзяржаўнай камісіі па гандлі, Амерыканская кампанія па перапрацоўцы цукру паступова прадала шматлікія кампаненты прыватным інвестарам, і такім чынам Мічыганская цукровая кампанія вызвалілася ад цукру. Давер. Увесь яго савет дырэктараў складаўся з жыхароў Мічыгана, ні адзін з якіх не меў асацыяцыі з Цукровым трэстам, за выключэннем яго прэзідэнта Чарльза Б. Уорэна, інтарэс якога зараз быў дасягнуты першым паслом Японіі ў 1921-1922 гадах; Потым амбасадар у Мексіцы ў 1924 г. Ён згубіў заяву стаць генеральным пракурорам ЗША ў 1925 г. падчас палітычна абвінавачанага ў сенаце галасавання, пад уплывам агіды да ранейшай асацыяцыі Уорэн з Цукровым трэстам. Яго памкненні да роляў у дзяржаўным сектары адхілілі яго ад пасады прэзідэнта, ролю якога ўмела выконваў Уільям Х. Уолас, які займаў званне, 3-га віцэ-прэзідэнта і генеральнага дырэктара. Першае і другое віцэ-прэзідэнцтвы трапілі ў пару актыўных удзельнікаў спісу акцыянераў, якія не ўдзельнічалі ў паўсядзённай дзейнасці.

Кара перажывае час і перамены

Дзякуючы Джэймсу Хоуэлу, кіраўніку Кара ў 1944 годзе, які падрыхтаваў запісаную гісторыю ў 1948 г., стала вядома, што Кэра пачаў назапашваць буракі на заводскім двары ў 1937 годзе, што стала важным этапам для хлебаробаў, якія пасля дастаўкі буракоў на завод маглі паглядзець. для патрэбаў іншых культур, тады як раней буракі трэба было пастаўляць па меры неабходнасці.

У перыяд 1928-1937 гадоў завод Caro, як і амаль усе заводы цукровых буракоў Мічыгана, пакутаваў ад наступстваў Вялікай дэпрэсіі. Аднак з 1937 года і да гэтага часу Караль паведамляе аб няўхільным паляпшэнні ў плане мадэрнізацыі і пашырэння. Цэнтрабежныя цэнтры для белага цукру і новы цэлюлозны склад былі дададзены ў 1944 г. Цэнтрабежны – гэта прылада, прызначаная для аддзялення крышталяў цукру ад сіропу, фільтруючы сіроп праз экран, які круціцца з дастатковай хуткасцю (звычайна каля 1200 абаротаў у хвіліну), каб стварыць цэнтрабежную сілу, прасоўвае сіроп праз перфарацыю ў спінінг-кошыку. Крышталі цукру застаюцца ў кошыку, у той час як сіроп рэцыркулюе праз працэс, каб аднавіць большую частку цукру. Гэтыя і іншыя змены сталі прычынай пашырэння сярэднясутачнай нормы зрэзу да больш чым 3600 тон кожныя дваццаць чатыры гадзіны ў параўнанні з 500 тон у дзень па першапачатковым дызайне, што робіць яе адносна невялікай фабрыкай у параўнанні з іншымі ў ЗША, якія вар'іруюцца ад удвая большы ў чатыры разы большы.

Калі ў Кэра ёсць сакрэт выжывання больш за 100 гадоў, дык фабрыка Окснард адбудаваная засталася менавіта такой на працягу многіх гадоў і застаецца такой і сёння, адказваючы на ​​праблемы, як яны ўзнікаюць, атрымліваючы падтрымку сваёй суполкі і мяняючыся пры нагодзе і магчымасці аб'яднацца разам прымусіць перамены. Такім чынам, найстарэйшая ў ЗША захаваная бурачная цукровая фабрыка вісіць у хутка развіваецца прамысловасці.

Крыніцы:

ХАУЕЛ, Джэймс, Гісторыя завода Кэра ў Мічыганскім цукровым прадпрыемстве, неапублікаваны справаздачу па гісторыі завода Кара, 1 мая 1948 г.

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954, с.182 адносна набыцця цукровых заводаў Sugar Trust, стар. 177 адносна арганізацыі цукру Sebewaing і вынікаў працы, надрукаваная кампаніяй Bay Cities Duplicating Company, Сан-Францыска, штат Каліфорнія

MARQUIS, Альберт Нэльсан, рэдактар, "Кніга Детройтэраў", старонкі 465-468, A.N. Marquis & Company, Чыкага, 1908 – адносна біяграфіі Чарльза Б. Уорэна

Гадавыя справаздачы Мічыгана, Мічыганскі архіў, Лансінг, Мічыган:

Кампанія паўвостравай цукровай рафінацыі пададзена ў 1904 г., а ў 1924 г. – Мічыганская цукровая кампанія

MOODY, Джон, Праўда пра трэсты, спасылаючыся на каментарый, што Sugar Trust пачаў купляць цукровыя кампаніі буракоў у Мічыгане ў 1902 годзе і выплаты дывідэндаў паміж 1892 і 1900 гадамі.

ЗЛУЧАНЫЯ ШТАТЫ. У акруговым судзе ЗША па паўднёвым акрузе Нью-Ёрка

ЗША супраць Амерыканскай цукровай рафінады і інш. старонка 1674 г., выстава прашэння № 1494

Аўтарскае права, 2009 г., Томас Махар, Усе правы абаронены

Where the hell Latrobe – California?

Few places uniquely beautiful than the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada. In the heart of the hills in the south-western part of the County of El Dorado is the town of Latrobe, near Shyngl Springs. The gentle slopes, outcrops and sources add a certain flavor that continues to attract residents of nearby cities. Perhaps the Indians or South Nisenana Maida highly disclose the splendor of the valley, where they inhabited this region in ancient times.

Homeland Indians ran to the Bear River and south of the south or middle branch Kosum River. Nisenan tribe consisted of a primary, permanent village surrounded by several secondary villages and seasonal camps. The villages were family dwellings, acorn grenade, mortar base lodge dances and house from 15-500 people. Conventional rustic places were along Clooney, ridges or streams with a southern exposure. Here nizenanskiya ground acorns with & # 39 are their main food, as well as fishing with hands or spears. Salt was obtained from sources and using bonfires and networks they hunted deer, rabbits and other small creatures. Ants, grasshoppers, lizards and frogs also devoured. Berries Manzanita used for producing such cider beverage. Nisenane were destroyed by the epidemic of malaria in 1833, as well as the extraction of gold mined land.

Latrobeu owes its roots platsevile and railway Sacramento Valley, where the station set up for the huge benefit of neighboring Amador County.

The history of the area is further associated with the Gold Rush of the 1850s, agricultural and economic development of the County of El Dorado and commerce between Clarksville and Latrobe. In 1849, a year after the California gold was discovered, thousands of reliable gold digger arrived at the "digging". Many of them came through the area to settle in Latrobe.

The train station was located at the intersection of Latrobe Road and South Shinglevskay road, which was the town of Latrobe with the eastern end Shyngl Springs.

The railway line was completed in 1884. The town was named after the civil engineer, who has taken an important role in building America's first railroad.

J.H. Miller, locale and hotel owner, opened the first store in Latrobe in 1863. The population had grown to 700-800, the number of stores increased to six or seven. Latrobeb ​​supported four hotels, three blacksmith's shop and a factory of wagons and carriages. Latrobe also offered a bakery and several butcher shops.

There were only three doctors along with two pharmacies, who took care of the medical needs of the whole society. The building of a public school, which still stands part of the school the school, – a two-storey building, containing all public meetings.

Organizations Masons and Odd Fellows had their own rooms.

By 1864 the flights were routed to the new town of Latrobe, if a & # 39 came the first train. Since that time and until June 1865, when the line reached Shyngl Springs, it was an important station for the huge work that flowed down Peyservil Road in Virginia. About 23 years later the railroad stretched to Platservilya.

Seven & # 39; and living the path of the railroad saw some immediate benefits. However, the acquisition of the railway right of way has angered many other people, when they placed the plots of land, but were forced to give up part of their land for the railways.

In 1866, the hotel has a bar in Latrobe and Michigan provide train passengers and locals dinner and overnight.

For a long time, Latrobe controlled all Amador County trading activities. The city became a major center for many travelers, providing eight daily stages in connection with the trains. However, since this is not a tea town, and railway construction continued in the east, business suffered. In 1883, the heyday of state stopped, when the population dwindled to about 80 people with a store, a hotel, the telegraph, the two forging shops and only carriage and wagon shop.

In 1981, the county of El Dorado adopted a plan Latrobe area, covering the western side of the ridge to the Lotaun Kosumn river, noting attractions such as the picturesque mountain Sugar garden and Indian Creek.

Today, the company no longer exists, and the town consists mainly of rural residential areas with a few acres, such as division Shadow Hawk and Sun Ridge Meadow. Another division is currently being built next to the school Miller Hill.

It also remains Oddfellows Hall and that was one of the most highly regarded schools in California today – Elementary School Latrobe.

Where to travel this fall?

The fall season, when the summer is almost gone, and winter begin to breed wings. The days get shorter and the nights get longer and interesting summer crowds disappear, and this is the perfect time to plan a vacation or a quick getaway. This is a wonderful time of the year when the beauty of nature as much as possible, and you can enjoy it thoroughly. Take advantage of cheap travel offers autumn and enjoy the beautiful weather & # 39; I and my loved ones. So, while you're planning a casual visit to the nearest place, look the best destinations that can be visited in the autumn season.

Portland, Oregon: Located near the confluence of Uilamet and Columbia rivers, the largest city in the United States makes a wonderful holiday destination in the fall season. Season brings unexpected sunny days and clear night in Portland. Colorful furnishings, hiking golf and a large number of festivals make this the best time to plan a quick getaway with friends and family & # 39; it.

Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama beautiful throughout the year, but especially in the fall. Since the summer given the green brilliant yellow poplars, scarlet dogwoods, orange and golden maple Hickory, Alabama deploys its openwork blanket with color. Hiking and hunting – popular activities that you can do in the season. Pack the bags and take a break from the old procedures to this incredible place.

Chicago, Illinois: Best time to visit Chicago – this fall season. It is located on Lake Michigan, which is a & # 39 is the most famous attraction of this place. When planning a vacation in this wonderful place, do not forget to visit the main attractions such as Millennium Park, Grant Park and Baku fountain, field museum, etc.

Montreal, Canada: Autumn season in Montreal is filled with reviews. The elegance of the season very well tolerated by the trees and the surrounding world in harmony with nature. To experience the true meaning of the season, do not miss events such as walks and excursions that reveal the tone, color and flavors in all their glory.

Munich, Germany: Autumn season in Munich is cool and wet enough. The famous Oktoberfest – this is the main place that will allow you to enjoy some of the highest quality wines and beers of the world. Also, the natural beauty of this place will take away your heart and leave you without question. A visit to Munich in the fall season can make your stay useful.

The autumn season – the best time to travel, because the places are less crowded, and hotels and flights – pretty cheap. It is not necessary to follow the GPS of your mobile phone, follow the voice of your heart and go to any of your favorite destinations this autumn season.

Guide Alamo car rental – What you need to know about booking, payment and cancellation mechanisms

In 1995, Alamo was the first car rental company to offer customers online reservations in real time. In 2005, she became the first in the industry, which has developed a digital recording system. It has expanded its services to the rest of the world and develops partnerships with travel agents, airlines, tour operators and other organizations associated with travel. No matter what you need to go abroad on a business trip or want to spend a week on the beach with his family & # 39; it, you can not go wrong with the car rental in Alamo.

Choose from luxury cars to drive through a big city, the Toyota or the Dodge to drive something & # 39; w, reliable jeep for off-road adventures, etc. In some states, such as Michigan and New York, it's 18 years. However, keep in mind that for drivers aged 18 to 24 years old can apply.

If you can book a car rental at the airport, be sure to enter your airline and flight number on hand to service agent clients can prepare your car, even if the flight is delayed. It will be held twelve o'clock after the scheduled collection time, or until the end of the day. The second driver may be added at an additional cost per day (cost Var & # 39; iruetstsa depending on the location).

Not familiar with the area in which you are traveling? Try to request a GPS-navigation device with the help of our Alamo car rental. TravelTab device is also available, if you want to voice navigation and 4G data service reaches up to 5 devices.

Alamo car rental – one way and Economy

If you are going to go to another area, Alamo offers car rental in the same direction. Since you may be charged a "long-distance" fee, which depends on the location and time of year. Also known as fee for "discarding", it will be disclosed in the reservation process. It is recommended that disposable braniravalasya rent in advance.

Traveling with their furry friends? Pets are allowed in car rental in Alamo, as long as they are contained in a carrier. If they are not kept by the carrier, you may charge a fee for cleaning and details. In a vehicle without a carrier may contain only service animals for the disabled.

There are several ways to save. For example, the discount on the car rental Alamo will apply if you prepay this credit card at least 24 hours. When choosing a car during the online booking with & # 39 will be able to forward the payment. Discount for pre-payment is not always available in every location.

One of the best partners Alamo can be found on the Internet; discounts are available regularly. You can compare prices, vehicles and demand. Also there is the possibility of combining a car rental reservation at the Alamo with the air ticket and hotel room.

Study: Or to measure the modern violin strings?

Double blind tests in 2014 found that the new violin have preferred the sound that shocked many. But it is music to the ear of violinists with smaller budgets.

If beauty is in the eyes of the viewer, and the taste – on gurmanskay language or sounds the sweetest fiddle only in the ear melofila or "music lover"?

Each of them asked about the superlatives: there is a "best" for all? And since the time of Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737), the eponymous lyutsiera Stradivari, it was conventional wisdom that his great violin really were the best. But are they? Two recent double blind tests suggest that you may still be wrong.

First, a little background: craftsmanship, woods, available at the time (the density differences possibly due to the cold conditions outside & # 39; I, when the source tree grew), egg-white varnish, honey and gum Arabic. .. promote quality and exquisite mystery cello, viola and violin, created by Stradivari. In the most recent auction of the individual layers collected more than $ 15 million. According to CMUSE, website music news and entertainment, world-class violin soloists who play the Stradivarius – Anne-Sophie Muter, Itzhak Perlman, Joshua Bell, Salvatore Akarda, Edvin Marton and Anne Akiko Meyers. Renowned cellist Yo Yo Ma plays the cello Stradivarius.

Tests that compare Stradivarius violin and a new high-quality violins, conducted under the guidance of musical acoustics Claudia Fritz (University P & # 39; EPA and Marie Curie in Paris), Violin Joseph Kertsina master Ann Arbor, Michigan, and their colleagues. The first was a six violins, three strings and three high-quality modern violins. It was held in a hotel room in Vincenzi, a suburb of Paris, two violinists, who wore modified welding goggles, so that they did not know, they play old or new tools. Fifty-five students evaluated each instrument, and the result has contributed new violins.

The first study was faced with criticism – too small sample too few students, in a hotel room and not in the concert hall – because the researchers expanded their investigation of the second test in the 300-seat assembly hall in New York, before an audience of 82 students. The result was the same: the new violin beaten suffer. This study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States of Sciences ( "Estimates listeners new and old-Italian violins," Fritz curtains, etc., 2017).

One point that was repeatedly expressed by listeners, was relatively instruments & # 39; projection, sound volume. New Violin won on that score, and ratings for the projection consistent with a rating for the overall sound quality.

Although it may weaken (for some) the perception of Stradivarius, otherwise overwhelming majority of violinists can be seen as a plus. Modern violin at modest prices can not be a compromise for virtuosos.

It also notes that the double-blind trials have debunked the difference between wines at favorable prices and their cousins ​​on the $ 100 per bottle. And the main cook were deceived by the imitation crab, thinking it was the real thing.

German violinist Christian Tetslaf previously played suffer, but dropped out (well technically not throwing in the ditch) for violin, made in 2002 by Stefan-Peter Greyneram. Why? "It's not good for the" big romantic concerts of the 20th century ", – he says.