Germans long enjoyed alcohol. If at the beginning of the seventh century Irish missionary Columbanus first encounter with the Germans, it happened with the ritual sacrifice of beer.
Even after the Germans had become Christians, the majority of religious leaders followed the biblical view of alcohol as belonging to God. Martin Luther admired beer and wine: at times he n & # 39; they are, and he used the melody of popular songs of songs for some of their hymns.
That was the tradition in the missionary pastor Frederick Schmid, who came to Michigan in 1833 to gather the congregation among the German immigrants of the state. But Schmid, who founded the Lutheran Church and Zion and Bethlehem on the & # 39; United Church of Christ, quickly learned that other local ministers are habits much more strictly. Repulsed the general predilection for strong drink and habit to continue n & # 39; yanyya alcoholic beverages, many were in favor of an outright ban drinking.
In June, 1834 to Schmid asked the local minister of presbyter. Or be used Schmid their powers to convince the Germans Ann Arbor to adhere to the principles of the Presbyterian temperature, which prohibits not only alcohol, but even coffee and tea?
Schmid said he did not have to obey their Christian Jarmuth. People with the Holy Spirit in them will not drink too much and not to misuse God's gifts. Jesus said Schmid, drank wine.
The clash of cultures, which began on that day, will last nearly a century. The Germans arrived in Ann Arbor on a background of a large movement of moderate Americans, born in 1920.
Most of the German settlers had seen things like Schmid. Their attitude is enshrined in the Constitution of the Church Betalskay "Town of Freedom", which condemned only n & # 39; yanyya alcoholic beverages. The churchyard is the tombstone with the date "31 February". According to a former pastor Roman Reineke, family farms would be visited by masons when he worked. They brought a strong cider or wine, and the date of the end of the day it did not matter.
In the cities, where the majority were German, so communication has caused little trouble. But the German love of alcohol was much more of a problem in Ann Arbor. In the period from 1868 to 1918, the city recorded 221 directories a place where alcohol is distributed, more than half of which belonged to the German Americans.
Edith Shtybler Kempf (1898-1993) talked about the interior of the XIX century, driven by Charlie Bear. We went to the professor, lawyers and wealthy German farmers. Baer also serving food, and, according to Kempf, it has never been strashnastsi.
Yankee Michygandy seven & # 39; and some came from New England or New York State, possibly ignoring the Germans, who were selling beer to other Germans. But the student population of Ann Arbor was another matter. Most students era M came from seven & # 39; ads Yankees and grew up in the homes of Methodist, Baptist and presviteryyantsav where teetatalizm conducted. Independently in Ann Arbor, some honored their new freedom, including the freedom to drink.
At the beginning of the University of Michigan closely followed by students. They lived on campus, had a 9 pm. curfew, and they had to attend mandatory chapel twice a day to listen to the sermon, who read the teachers of the faculty, which were mainly intended Protestant clergy.
This changed when Philippe Henry Tapani took over as president of the university in 1852 Tappan visited research universities in Prussia, and he began to recruit faculty on the basis of scholarship, not a church affiliation. Tappan also abolished the university hostel because I wanted students to be more independent and to live off campus, as students in Europe.
Tappan himself drank wine during a meal, and it was like drinking beer students. He really spoke out against distilled spirit, but it is unlikely to suit more conservative capacity and regents.
Free from the authority of parents and university students have turned to alcohol hell. In 1856, the student mobs attacked the German drinking place during "the war in the Netherlands." The conflict began when Zhakab Hangsterfer threw two quarrelsome students with their beer halls. They returned the next night with friends, armed with knives and batons. If Hangsterfer refused to provide them with free refreshments, the students broke open casks and barrels and destroyed furniture and glass.
Soon, six students through my hotel window and interior Henry Binder and helped with a drink in German pain. Binder could capture only one of the students and took him hostage. Others received reinforcements from the campus. If Binder demanded $ 10 for the stolen snacks, the students attacked the ram. If the brick walls give way, Binder set his huge dog on students. But students of the dog killed the dog Binder. Students then went to get their muskets, which they used in military exercises, and at this moment Binder wise to let him go into captivity.
Tappan called on the carpet regents stressed permanent university requirements for a daily visit to the chapel and the Sunday church, as well as other evidence of the moral of the student body. He also called for the implementation of a new urban order, which prohibits the sale of alcohol to minors and drunk people. But the following year a former student died after drinking in the lounge Binder and other rooms.
Tappan joined the community who are putting pressure on the City Council to informally agree that no licenses will not be issued for the east of Division Street, creating a "dry line" for the protection of campus. But Tappan lost points with regents when he refused to accept personal concern. Although he raised the university to a national increase of growth ten times, laying the foundations of law, and engineering schools, and much more – the regents were more concerned about his moral shortcomings. They fired him in 1863.
At the site of the Tappan regents appointed minister of the Methodist and professor of Latin Erastus Haven. The church was inaugurated prezbiteryyanskay Gaven. At the ceremony, the Regent puts it, which tells in detail about the "sinful" behavior Tappan.
However, the president of New Haven, unsuccessfully, to curb rowdy students. In 1867, he informed the Association will give libraries that Ann Arbor "disgraced throughout the country" as a "place of debauchery and alcohol Up & # 39; yanennya". By 1871, he had been stung by quarrels, dissensions night and destructive pranks, voters chose Ann Arbor University faculty member of the mayor. Silo Douglas immediately made municipal leader to warn salons that long ignored the resolution on Sunday, the closing will be performed.
Conflict of Ann Arbor on the alcohol in the end has become a common issue. Michigan branch of the Woman's Christian temperature Union issued a flyer in 1881, deciphering urban salons for making men "bruterami". The leaflet lists thirty-seven owners of salons by name, most of whom are Americans in Germany, and argues that "Al-Arba would be better morally, socially, intellectually, and in any other case, if this disgusting long list of people would have every one of they die of smallpox within the next week. "
In 1887, Michigan voted for the proposed amendment to the state constitution that prohibits the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Many German second trip Ann Arbor (today's Old West Land) rejected his ten to one. Sixth Ward, which was dominated by the Yankees and universities, three voted "for". He lost across the country.
The forces of moderation Ann Arbor finally achieved some success in 1902, when unofficial dry area around the university has become a part of the city charter. By 1908, eleven counties of Michigan adopted local ordinances prohibitive, and every year they are joined by more and more districts. In 1916, the voters of Michigan again considered an amendment to a ban in the state constitution. Second Ward still voted "against", almost two, one, but Ann Arbor in general voted for the ban, as well as the state.
The late Ernie Split recalled that the government inspectors, who arrived at the brewery "Michigan Union" on Fourth Street, on the day when the state is dry, 1 mine in 1918. According to split, all drinking, even the inspectors. Then "the rest of the beer was poured down the drain. It was the saddest day of my life."
Horde Michyganderav headed to Ohio to drink, with the result that the State of Michigan Governor ordered government troops to patrol the border. Cars that ignore the roadblocks, were fired, and the governor was forced to & # 39; to reveal the limited military state. A passenger was killed in the neck when the driver was unable to stop on the highway for the paratroopers in Ann Arbor. But as a result of the search of the car there is no alcoholic beverages.
In 1918, with the & # 39 approved the entrance of the eighteenth amendment, which prohibits the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages. It was ratified by the states in early 1919 and entered into force in January 1920.
The ban actually reduce the strong alcohol consumption, particularly among workers in rural and urban towns. But it had the opposite effect among the bona fide angels.
Bootleggers and illegal places to drink largely ignored beer and wine, focusing instead on the more lucrative hard liquor. Cocktails become chic.
It is estimated that each week from Canada through the Detroit River were brought from 400 to 600 cases of whiskey. Much of it was later moved to Chicago, usually passing through the district Vashtenau.
One cold April night in 1927, police in Ann Arbor, William Erwin Kibler mark and stopped the car in the city center. The driver was not registering, so Marty stood on the side of the machine to send it to the police headquarters, and drove back Kibeler for patrol car. Near the headquarters of one of the passengers pulled out a gun and shot five times in the window, undermining Marty to the sidewalk. The machine with the & # 39; riding. Fortunately, the killer insisted that Marty wore a bulletproof vest.
If the police stepped up efforts to enforce, gangsters simply used their huge profits to buy faster cars and more guns. Ordinary citizens were afraid of being caught in the fire. They put the sticker of the American flag on the windshield with a "Do not shoot, I'm not Buttler" inscription.
Due to the frustration of law enforcement officials, they hit the little man in a German restaurant Metzger Ann Arbor. In 1929, Bill Metzger asked the owner to sell hard cider and put on probation for five years. He was fined $ 100 and could not leave the state without the consent of the court. Him, his means of transport, business and the home can be sought at any time without a warrant. To avoid future cases cracklings, he could not sell cider.
During the 1920s, even the Germans began to question the ban. They realized that they had just replaced the hated interior on talkative and blind pig and began to think that the German approach moderate drinking beer and wine can be good.
In the presidential election in 1932, Franklin Roosevelt ran as the candidate of the wet. As one of the first acts of the new with the & # 39 entrance took twenty-first amendment, abolishing the ban. In April of Michigan became the first state to ratify it. By May, the sale and consumption of alcohol were again legal in Ann Arbor.
Michigan brewery Union Union restored as a brewery in Ann Arbor. Kurt Neumann, a longtime resident of the "Cabbage Town" have been known to the Old West Side, she recalled how people from the neighborhood sat, was packed wall directly from the nuts and sat, talking and drinking. Unfortunately, other residents were not so loyal to the "Ann Arbor Old Time", "Cream-stamp" or "City Club" – perhaps because it's all the same beer, only with different labels. Brewery permanently closed in 1949.
In 1960, local voters finally allowed the bar to serve alcoholic beverages. In 1964, they replaced the age-old dry line dry smaller island around the university, and even that was eliminated in 1969. Anne Arbaryty abolished the last vestiges of the crusade against alcohol Yankees.
This article originally with & # 39 appeared in the review of Ann Arbor for September 2009 For more information about the history of Ann Arbor, including photos, berery and more, can be found at: http://www.celticgerman.com