October 17, 1898 in the suburbs of Michigan Bay City, Eseksvil smiling governor B. Hazen Pingree was on hand to witness the beginning of the first harvest of sugar beet Michigan. By doing this, Pingree announced a period of speculative investments in the production of sugar beet, which marked the establishment of companies that sometimes suddenly rose to spectacular heights, and just as quickly went down to oblivion, keeping the savings of thousands of small investors. Several companies that survived the turbulent early years, however, have produced more than one billion pounds of sugar each year.
Governor Pingree threw its support on "Public Act 48," legislation, which promised lucky money for the beet sugar produced in Michigan. Its passage caused a rush to build beet plants across the state and, according to his supporters, went away to replace the jobs lost approaching death timber industry, which was an economic pillar of the state for fifty years. When Michigan was a country of white pine forests so thick that in 1812, government surveyors recognized it unfit for human habitation. After depletion of the forests of Maine, New York and Pennsylvania Timber harrows turned their attention to the hundreds of millions of pine planks White Michigan. Now that it was over, the political leaders of the state were in need of new sources of economic wealth.
The Governor and the heads of the companies, Thomas Krenazh Benjamin Butel, Nathan Bradley, people whose happiness were recruited in the timber industry, gladly listened to whistles factory that caused the beets from the pits to store to enter the first of the twenty-three factories where workers, entrepreneurs , farmers and politicians set aside natural differences to a & # 39; to combine their talents for the common good. It was an idea that traveled from Europe nearly seven decades earlier.
France has developed a sugar cane as a source of white granulated sugar is less than a hundred years earlier. Napoleon Bonaparte took over control of France, continued the French tradition to threaten England's war. In accordance with its warlike intentions he set embargo on British deliveries and thereby effectively disabled access to the English port from which depended France, at an overload of cane sugar from the West Indies. Sugar stocks gained on English docks, while the inhabitants of France suffered for his absence.
By the embargo on British trade in France in 1806 to meet their needs a constant supply of cane sugar from Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean and Reunion in the Indian Ocean. To meet the unmet needs created by its embargo and counter-embargo England, Napoleon decided to stimulate the production of sugar from sugar beets. Experiments ten years earlier established the viability of the beet root as a replacement for sugar cane. So convincing were the results of that cane industry representatives offered to pay the modern equivalent of 120,000 dollars Achardu Karl Franz, a scientist most responsible for research in return for rejecting the possibilities of extraction of sugar from sugar beets. Rejection of the proposal, not only confirmed his character, but also established a foundation industry.
By 1812 forty plants operated in France. These factories, meager by the standards of the 21st century, was treated almost one hundred thousand tons of sugar beet produced in the seventeen thousand hectares, and from them produced more than three million tons of sugar. From France, the industry has spread to Germany, Russia and other countries. In Germany Achard founded a school that had students from all over Europe. When the students returned to their home countries, they carried with them the technical information that encouraged the creation of many more plants. Eventually Acharda descendants settled in Michigan, where they become involved in the nursery of the sugar industry of the state.
Sugar beet resembles a turnip on steroids. Its weight ranges from three to five kilograms. The thick canopy of deciduous foliage protects it from the sun. Sugar beets with & # 39 is a member of a family of geese and incorporates cousins, red beet, spinach, pig weed, lamb and Russian thistle, and more narrowly refers to the species Beta vulgaris, which includes not only the sugar beet, but and beets, Swiss chard and vurzel. Its roots can stretch to six or eight feet in the soft soil, so that you can survive in a climate of various types, which is found in Arizona and Michigan, where it has a growing season, which lasts from March to October. Period following the growing season, the period during which the sugar is extracted from sugar beet and then processed, the industry called the "company".
Opening of Michigan sugar beet campaign was, for each view, a great success. Farmers have prepared an average of 10.3 tons of beets on each of 1010 hectares in total 32,047 tons of sugar beet. sugar content of beet averaged 12.93 percent at a purity of 82%, of which factory acquired 5,685,552 pounds of sugar, providing 65% -ing extraction.
Farmers have expressed their approval when the company Michigan Sugar Company has paid an average of 4.51 dollars for every ton of beets, which immediately classifies sugar beets as the main harvest. Investors happy lot. Public Act 48 provided to producers of sugar profits, promising to pay the membership, roughly equivalent to one third of the estimated production costs by three percent. manufacturer's obligation to provide a guaranteed fee of $ 4 per tonne of beet, containing not less than 12% sugar and commensurate $ 4 for all beets that contain a greater or lesser percentage of sugar.
When the target price of four dollars, no yield in the history of mankind has not created a potential for the creation of such a high yield with so few hectares. A farmer with a higher average power, posted fifteen hectares of sugar beet, could earn $ 900, and if it were something & # 39; I have provided the bulk of the labor force, the net profit would exceed the care of the family & # 39 needs, and for the year, including food, it was less than 800 dollars. After adding income from crops such as wheat, corn and beans, as well as income from milk, eggs and poultry, the level of family life in the economy rose to the level of a living wage to the subsistence level, than compared with those who held positions of middle management . in the industry. Not only with the & # 39 sugar beet emergence of radically increased the standard of living of those who grow beets, but also established her reputation as a mortgage payer. Farmers who grow beets, was courted by bankers who wanted to find reliable borrowers, which allowed many farmers to quickly move from subsistence farming to a high income and, ultimately, to the status of wealth.
The official recognition of the Ministry of Agriculture of the United States economy in 1898, the importance of the sugar beet industry – combined with the success that took place right at home, with the original outstanding results Eseksvil factory, due to the rapid development. A year earlier, the country boasts only ten plants of sugar beet, four of which were in California, one in Utah, two in Nebraska and three in New York. Construction of seven plants of sugar beet in 1898 for the first time the focus of the excitement, which expands to a full boom until 1900, when the national number was thirty sugar beet plants in eleven states.
Nowhere was hotter than in Michigan, where nine plants followed the successful experiment Eseksvilya. Explosion cyclonic enthusiasm caused a furious fight, when investors, builders, bankers and farmers about the & # 39; combined energy and skills to revive the eight plants in one year! They were in Holland, Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Alma, West Bay City, Caro and the second factory in Eseksvile. The Marine City, investors, inspired by the success in Eseksvile, paid Kilby Manufacturing Company 557000 dollars for the construction of the tenth factory of sugar beet Michigan. Despite the misfortune of building factories and engineers for their operation on the next six years on the outskirts of Michigan towns grew fourteen additional plants, the last of which with a & # 39; appeared in Blissfilde in 1905. In fifteen years, "Sugar Monitor" built twenty States fourth and final beet factory.
In 1898, when the passion was ignited in the hottest moments of enthusiasts shouting prediction of what Michigan quickly reminds one of a sugar beet field, which extends from the southern border to the northern-most tip of the Lower Peninsula. Lawmakers were alarmed by the fear that Public Act 48, designed to initiate the development of a new industry, could unleash a monster that will swallow the state budget. They stood together in silence with relief when Roscoe Dix State Auditor General announced Public Act 48 unconstitutional. The decision taken later by the Supreme Court of Michigan, cooled delighted sugar beet is only slightly because it was strong, and yet there was hope that the US Supreme Court overturned the decision of the Supreme Court of the State. These efforts failed when the US Supreme Court dismissed the appeal on the basis of jurisdiction. The court's decision was nothing more than a fast kick in Michigan, where beet enhanced the excitement bring fresh capital into the city, which would otherwise have suffered from extinction at the light attenuation of lumber.
If the loan was made at the sixty years earlier, the plant "Eseksvil" was the second beet plant in Michigan. Until the 1830s, the new European practice extraction from beet sugar with sugar cane captured the imagination of the individual, but like-minded, small groups of investors in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Michigan. The latter group was called the "White Dove" by the city, which organized the campaign. Experiments Michigan and Massachusetts eventually led to the construction of factories located for white sugar in commercial quantities. These are the first factory, plastered with the relics of French origin, the average of five tons of sugar beet sliced per day, the amount processed in less than sixty seconds in today's plants. It is impossible to reach the goal of commercial production of sugar as it was not possible in one thousand eight hundred forty-one year.
While it is true that a good idea has a lot of parents, Michigan industry recognized one more than any other. It was Professor Robert Keady, the legendary professor of chemistry at Michigan Agricultural College (later Michigan State University) and defender of consumers pioneers who helped the country to stop the practice of wallpaper and volatile gas. He had the idea of service expansion of agriculture. More than fifteen years he devoted to the research development of sugar beet as a result of earning a hard-nosed, "Father of Michigan sugar industry" for the unwavering commitment to the belief that sugar beet will play a vital role in the future of Michigan agriculture.
By 1906, thanks to Robert Keady and dozens of municipal leaders across the state who were willing to take desperate measures to save their dying community, the sugar beet industry in the state turned into three main groups, which will remain largely unchanged for the next 100 years. The first were those factories who have lived the life of at least ten years, one of which was the first factory in Michigan Eseksvile. The rest included four of the eight plants that are included in the world in 1899.
Factory in Rochester, Kalamazoo and Benton Harbor, plus one in Charlevoix were built by industrialists, who firmly believed in his samaabdumanuyu axiom that when it comes to farmers, "build it and they will come." The theory could not grow on sugar beet, when farmers saw little reason to take the lucrative fruit and vegetables on a product that is dependent on the plant for the conversion of agricultural commodities into marketable products. Factories could not grab the beets.
Baron Lerber Churchill led a group of investors to the idea to build a sugar mill of 600 tonnes per day just across the road from the factory "Eseksvil" in the state of Michigan Sugar Company, believing correctly that the 350-ton capacity plant has become an easy target for aggressive competitor. He was right. By 1903, he persuaded Tom Kranazha, president of the company "Michigan Sugar Company," about the & # 39; to unite with his new company. They named the new corporation, Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company, which virtually ceased to exist original company Michigan Sugar Company, and then start the process of closing the smaller plant.
In addition to the group of plants, intended for short-term existence, there were seven, which largely remain independent and live for an average of 41 years. Chief among them was the Dutch factory, which by all standards should have to go through other undersized 350-ton plants, but because of careful management of Charles Maclay, the former head of the school, who had a tenacity bear trap, the factory has gone through 37 years. The factory in the Netherlands was the only factory in the United States, which ceased operations on Sunday, and it was making in his first eleven years with high costs, but in accordance with the religious beliefs of the majority of society.
Bay City in 1899 was still fast woodcutter paradise, enjoying the last harvest timber, not looking up from a convenient substitution. Among the ruins zagnivaemay industry rose three urban beet plant which shows another example of perseverance – a comparison that is manifested in the Netherlands on term life and the will of one person to achieve success.
J. Mendel. Billy, head trained lumber accountant education assembled a group of investors who, as he had no experience in the production of sugar beet. Together they organized a sugar company West Bay City in 1898. Investors have entered into a contract with Bartlett and Howard, Maryland company from metallurgy, which sought to enter into a new hot industry – production of sugar.
Such was the confidence of the Bill, which he defined the qualifications for managing the factory without the help of technicians who have studied the intricacies of beet sugar factory. The result was predictably disastrous. The factory has reached only 126 pounds of sugar per ton of chopped beets, accounting for 48% of production at a time when factories are often reached 65-69%. Even the factory in the Netherlands, where twelve o'clock every Sunday stopped, recorded a higher level of production by 53%.
Those who pushed the rumors about the imminent failure to do so without first considering the indomitable spirit of Mendel Billy. He continued to work at the plant as part of 38 companies from attractive budget and charity plant managers who came to him for help with spare parts, experience and patience.
Five additional factories were a balance of independent, each with a story similar to that of Holland and West Bay City, where perseverance, lessons, hard work and dedicated artisans gave life to the plant, which, in turn, created the economic well-being of citizens and farmers in equal shares. Four of these plants existed in the mountains Clemens Mennomi, St. Louis and Bay City. The new plant in the city of Bay was the fourth erected in the vicinity of the city, which gave him more sugar factories than any city in America. First operated under the name of the German-American Sugar Company, it has evolved into a company Monitor Sugar Company. Fifth it was established in Blissfilde where luxury factory showrooms took center stage only to fall apart after a few years of mediocrity, when his main sponsor and benefactor Henry O. Havmeyer died suddenly of a heart attack.
When 1905 came to an end in Michigan for the production of sugar beet beginning to wander, does not look like a child's vertsitsu at the end of a vigorous rotation. Plants that opened a few years earlier, under the sounds of blowing, marching bands and patriotic speeches on political lamps, stood behind the closed gate, in reproaches blind forces that have made them so. Seven factories have closed, Eseksvil and five were located in Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Sea City, Saginaw and East Tave, mostly because farmers are indifferent to the appeals of the representatives of the factory to grow beets. However, sixteen beet factories with a total daily capacity of pieces of almost eleven thousand tons remained in business.
Despite the catastrophe elsewhere, formed a new company, which will eventually become the only survivor among the state sugar companies. It was August 20, 1906, when the sugar company "Bay City, Michigan" made a deal with Charles Beecher Warren, its main shareholder and a native of Bay City, the establishment of the new company, which borrowed its name, "Michigan Sugar Company" з Мічыгана першапраходцы ў галіне буракоў.
Новы баланс кампаніі Michigan Sugar Company адлюстраваў актывы шасці цукровых заводаў, размешчаных у штаце Мічыган. Кампаніямі былі, у дадатак да цукровай кампаніі "Бей Сіці-Мічыган", цукровай кампаніі "Сагіна-Велі" ў Карролтане, цукровай кампаніі паўвострава ў Каро, цукровай кампаніі "Алма" ў Алме, цукровай кампаніі "Санілак" у Кросуэле і цукровай кампаніі "Себевайнг". ў Sebewaing. Уорэн будзе займаць пасаду прэзідэнта кампаніі да 1925 года, калі ён падаў у адстаўку ў чаканні прыняцця прызначэння прэзідэнтам Кулідж генеральным пракурорам ЗША. Аднак незвычайна капрызны сенат Злучаных Штатаў, паказваючы на адносіны Уорана да цукровай прамысловасці, адхіліў кандыдатуру ў вузкім галасаванні. Віцэ-прэзідэнт Coolidge Чарльз Доўз, які мог павярнуць галасаванне ў карысць Уорэна, крыху задрамаў у гатэлі Willard. Ён прыйшоў у палату Сената занадта позна, каб змяніць вынік. Упершыню з 1868 года Сенат ЗША адмовіўся ад вылучэння кандыдатам у прэзідэнцкі кабінет, спыніўшы як выдатную кар'еру на дзяржаўнай службе Уорэн, так і яго сувязь з цукровай прамысловасцю. Раней ён займаў пасаду пасла ў Японіі (1922-1923) і пасла ў Мексіцы ў 1925 годзе.
Васямнаццаць гадоў пасля свайго заснавання, у 1924 годзе, штат Мічыган Цукар, дадаў да карпаратыўнага рэестра два дадатковыя заводы, калі да кампаніі далучыліся заводы бурачнага цукру ў Овоса і Лансінг. Праз дваццаць чатыры гады, у 1948 годзе, штат Мічыган Цукар набыў фабрыку Маунт-Плезант, разлічваючы набыць зямельныя надзелы, якія прадугледжаны федэральным заканадаўствам 1948 года. Фабрыка была пабудавана кампаніяй Monitor Sugar Company у 1920 годзе, а ў 1933 г. яе перавяла Ізабэла Sugar Company. Члены сям'і Карыэлаў, якія пад кіраўніцтвам Чарльза Карыла займалі кантрольны пакет акцый "Monitor Monitor Sugar Company" да 1982 года, таксама некаторы час займалі кантроль цікавасць да цукровай кампаніі Isabella. Да 1948 г. фабрыка стала закінутай, карыснай толькі для няцотных дэталяў і маркетынгавых выдзяленняў, прызначаных Міністэрствам сельскай гаспадаркі ЗША, што з'яўляецца непрыдатным канцом для кампаніі, якая паспяхова пачала пісаць дэсугарызацыю патакі з дапамогай іённага абмену за пяцьдзесят гадоў да таго, як працэс атрымаў прызнанне айчынная цукровая прамысловасць.
З закрыццём трох заводаў у "Menominee", "Бліссфілдзе" і "Сэнт-Луісе" ў 1954 годзе ў штаце Мічыган засталіся толькі дзве кампаніі – "Мічыганская цукровая кампанія", якая да таго часу кіравала чатырма з дзевяці заводаў, якія яна набыла: Caro, Carrollton, Croswell і Sebewaing, у той час як кампанія Monitor Monitor Sugar кіравала адной у Бей-Сіці. Абедзве кампаніі будуць канкураваць паміж сабой на працягу наступных паўстагоддзя, пакуль Мічыганская цукровая кампанія, тады 2002 г., была вытворцам кааператыву, які належаў 1300 вытворцам цукровых буракоў і набыла "Цукерную кампанію" Monitor "ад цукровай кампаніі Illovo, Дурбан, Паўднёвая Афрыка. 1, 2004 г.
Сёння камбінаваныя фабрыкі, кожны з якіх з'яўляецца прыкладам сучаснай тэхналогіі здабычы, маюць нарыхтоўку буракоў у 22000 тон у дзень (не лічачы Кэралантана, дзе вытворчасць прыпынена ў 2005 годзе) і здольнасць вырабляць больш за мільярд фунтаў цукру кожны год . Цукар прыходзіць на рынак у грануляваным, здробненым, карычневым або вадкім выглядзе, упакаваным у мяшкі вагой ад двух фунтаў да 2000 фунтаў або ў грузавых вагонах. Акрамя таго, кампанія выпускае больш за 150 000 тон патакі і цэлюлознай субпрадукцыі, што ў спалучэнні з цукровымі прадуктамі дае дзяржаве Мічыган значнае прысутнасць у айчыннай харчовай прамысловасці. Дзесьці, напэўна, губернатар Пінгры, які зрабіў столькі, каб стымуляваць эканамічнае дзіва, працягвае ўсміхацца.